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The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is a family of functionally related cells including bone marrow precursors, blood monocytes, and tissue macrophages. We review the evidence that macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are separate lineages and functional entities, and examine whether the traditional view that monocytes are the immediate precursors of tissue macrophages needs to be refined based upon evidence that macrophages can extensively self-renew and can be seeded from yolk sac/foetal liver progenitors with little input from monocytes thereafter. We review the role of the growth factor colony-stimulating factor (CSF)1, and present a model consistent with the concept of the MPS in which local proliferation and monocyte recruitment are connected to ensure macrophages occupy their well-defined niche in most tissues.
Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune-surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity in the origins of tissue macrophages that arise from hematopoietic versus self-renewing embryo-derived populations. We discuss the tissue–niche-specific factors that dictate cell phenotype, the definition of which will allow novel strategies to promote the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that dictate tissue macrophage heterogeneity should explain why simplified paradigms of macrophage activation do not explain the ext...
Both enantiomers of serine adsorb on the intrinsically chiral Cu{531} surface in two different adsorption geometries, depending on the coverage. At saturation, substrate bonds are formed through the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group and the amino group (μ3 coordination), whereas at lower coverage, an additional bond is formed through the deprotonated β−OH group (μ4 coordination). The latter adsorption geometry involves substrate bonds through three side groups of the chiral center, respectively, which leads to significantly larger enantiomeric differences in adsorption geometries and energies compared to the μ3 coordination, which involves only two side groups. This relatively simple model system demonstrates, in direct comparison, that attractive interactions of three side groups with the substrate are much more effective in...
The general paradigm is that monocytes are recruited to sites of inflammation and terminally-differentiate into macrophages. There has been no demonstration of proliferation of peripherally-derived inflammatory macrophages under physiological conditions. Here we show that proliferation of both bone marrow-derived inflammatory and tissue resident macrophage lineage branches is a key feature of the inflammatory process with major implications for the mechanisms underlying recovery from inflammation. Both macrophage lineage branches are dependent on M-CSF during inflammation, and thus the potential for therapeutic interventions is marked. Furthermore, these observations are independent of Th2 immunity. These studies indicate that the proliferation of distinct macrophage populations provides a general mechanism for macrophage expansion at ...
IL-4 and CSF-1 both contribute to macrophage proliferation during nematode infection, but IL-4 permits increased tissue macrophage density without the coincident monocyte infiltration associated with elevated CSF-1 levels.
CSF1 is the primary growth factor controlling macrophage numbers, but whether expression of the CSF1 receptor differs between discrete populations of mononuclear phagocytes remains unclear. We have generated a Csf1r-mApple transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse that, in combination with lineage tracing, Alexa Fluor 647-labeled CSF1-Fc and CSF1, and a modified Delta Csf1-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) transgene that lacks a 150 bp segment of the distal promoter, we have used to dissect the differentiation and CSF1 responsiveness of mononuclear phagocyte populations in situ. Consistent with previous Csf1r-driven reporter lines, Csf1r-mApple was expressed in blood monocytes and at higher levels in tissue macrophages, and was readily detectable in whole mounts or with multiphoton microscopy. In the liver and peritoneal cavit...
Background & Aims Liver regeneration requires functional liver macrophages, which provide an immune barrier that is compromised after liver injury. The numbers of liver macrophages are controlled by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1). We examined the prognostic significance of the serum level of CSF1 in patients with acute liver injury and studied its effects in mice. Methods We measured levels of CSF1 in serum samples collected from 55 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy at the Royal Infirmary Edinburgh between December 2012 and October 2013, as well as from 78 patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure admitted to the Royal Infirmary Edinburgh or the University of Kansas Medical Centre. We studied the effects of increased levels of CSF1 in uninjured mice that express wild-type CSF1 receptor or a con...
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