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Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune-surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity in the origins of tissue macrophages that arise from hematopoietic versus self-renewing embryo-derived populations. We discuss the tissue–niche-specific factors that dictate cell phenotype, the definition of which will allow novel strategies to promote the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that dictate tissue macrophage heterogeneity should explain why simplified paradigms of macrophage activation do not explain the ext...
Both enantiomers of serine adsorb on the intrinsically chiral Cu{531} surface in two different adsorption geometries, depending on the coverage. At saturation, substrate bonds are formed through the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group and the amino group (μ3 coordination), whereas at lower coverage, an additional bond is formed through the deprotonated β−OH group (μ4 coordination). The latter adsorption geometry involves substrate bonds through three side groups of the chiral center, respectively, which leads to significantly larger enantiomeric differences in adsorption geometries and energies compared to the μ3 coordination, which involves only two side groups. This relatively simple model system demonstrates, in direct comparison, that attractive interactions of three side groups with the substrate are much more effective in...
The general paradigm is that monocytes are recruited to sites of inflammation and terminally-differentiate into macrophages. There has been no demonstration of proliferation of peripherally-derived inflammatory macrophages under physiological conditions. Here we show that proliferation of both bone marrow-derived inflammatory and tissue resident macrophage lineage branches is a key feature of the inflammatory process with major implications for the mechanisms underlying recovery from inflammation. Both macrophage lineage branches are dependent on M-CSF during inflammation, and thus the potential for therapeutic interventions is marked. Furthermore, these observations are independent of Th2 immunity. These studies indicate that the proliferation of distinct macrophage populations provides a general mechanism for macrophage expansion at ...
IL-4 and CSF-1 both contribute to macrophage proliferation during nematode infection, but IL-4 permits increased tissue macrophage density without the coincident monocyte infiltration associated with elevated CSF-1 levels.
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