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Brca1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains are a common protein–protein interaction motif in proteins involved in the DNA damage response and DNA repair. The DNA-damage response protein 53BP1 has two BRCT domains that bind to the DNA-binding domain of p53. The 53BP1 tandem-BRCT region is homologous to the tandem-BRCT region of Brca1, which is involved in double-strand break repair and homologous recombination and which binds BACH1, a member of the DEAH helicase family. Here we report the structures of a human 53BP1–p53 complex and of the rat Brca1 BRCT repeats. The 53BP1–p53 structure shows that the two BRCT repeats are arranged tandemly and pack extensively through an interface that also involves the inter-repeat linker. The first BRCT repeat and the linker together bind p53 on a region that overlaps with the DNA-binding surface of p53 and invol...
It has been proposed that during the budding of COPII vesicles from transitional ER (tER) sites, Sec16 plays two distinct roles: negatively regulating COPII turnover and organizing COPII assembly. New data suggest that Sec16 does not in fact organize COPII and that regulation of COPII turnover can explain the influence of Sec16 on tER sites.
Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Recent studies indicate that DTX-2 is about half as toxic and has about half the affinity for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as OA. NMR structural studies showed that DTX-1 possessed an equatorial 35-methyl group but that DTX-2 had an axial 35-methyl group. Molecular modeling studies indicated that an axial 35-methyl could exhibit unfavorable interactions in the PP2A binding site, and this has been proposed as the reason for the reduced toxicity of DTX-2. Statistical analyses of published data indicate that the affinity of PP2A for DTX-1 is 1.6-fold higher, and for DTX-2 is 2-fold lower, than for OA. We obtained X-ray crystal structures of DTX-1 and DTX-2 bound to PP2A. T...
The myelin-derived proteins Nogo, MAG and OMgp limit axonal regeneration after injury of the spinal cord and brain. These cell-surface proteins signal through multi-subunit neuronal receptors that contain a common ligand-binding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored subunit termed the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). By deletion analysis, we show that the binding of soluble fragments of Nogo, MAG and NgR to cell-surface NgR requires the entire leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of NgR, but not other portions of the protein. Despite sharing extensive sequence similarity with NgR, two related proteins, NgR2 and NgR3, which we have identified, do not bind Nogo, MAG, OMgp or NgR. To investigate NgR specificity and multi-ligand binding, we determined the crystal structure of the biologically active ligand-binding soluble ectodomain of NgR. The molecul...
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