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The optimization methods and trade studies which were used to define a 1980 state-of-the-art design of orbital transfer vehicles are summarized. The advanced thrust chamber, turbomachinery, and engine power cycle technologies recommended for development and verification during the 1980's are discussed. The state-of-the-art design serves as one of the reference points for evaluation of the advanced technology concepts. A second reference point is provided by the 1960 state-of-the-art RL-10 engine. Advanced heat energy extraction concepts in the combustor and injector are presented that will permit the high chamber pressures expected of the advanced expander cycle engine concept. Advanced turbomachinery concepts are selected that will help utilize efficiently the heat energy extracted in the thrust chamber and aid in uprating chamber pre...
The linear rocket engine is shown to be a viable candidate propulsion system for post-Space Shuttle single-stage-to-orbit systems. The linear engine system has been developed and fired demonstrating high performance and long life with firing durations exceeding 500 seconds. The application of the split or dual combustor to the linear engine permits the uses of two different propellant combinations in a single engine system. The split combustor possesses the advantages of the two position extendible bell nozzle in a fixed nozzle configuration. Engine power cycles and applications to typical vehicles are discussed.
A radar transducer array (12) for an ultra-wideband imaging radar system (10) operating at a reference wavelength ?c comprises transmission antenna elements (14) or reception antenna elements and reception antenna elements (16), which are located at specific locations of the array plane in such a way that high image quality is achieved with a minimum number of antenna elements (14, 16), resulting in less complex hardware as well as significantly reduced computational effort.
Comment: 3 pp. Particle Accelerator, 24th Conference (PAC'11) 2011. 28 Mar - 1 Apr 2011. New York, USA
We investigated the transformation of six industrial azo and phthalocyanine dyes by ligninolytic peroxidases from Bjerkandera adusta and other white rot fungi. The dyes were not oxidized or were oxidized very little by Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase (MnP) or by a chemically generated Mn3+-lactate complex. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) from B. adusta also showed low activity with most of the dyes, but the specific activities increased 8- to 100-fold when veratryl alcohol was included in the reaction mixture, reaching levels of 3.9 to 9.6 U/mg. The B. adusta and Pleurotus eryngii MnP isoenzymes are unusual because of their ability to oxidize aromatic compounds like 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and veratryl alcohol in the absence of Mn2+. These MnP isoenzymes also decolorized the azo dyes and the phthalocyanine complexes in an Mn2+-ind...
The ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus eryngii grown in liquid medium secreted extracellular polysaccharide (87% glucose) and the H2O2-producing enzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO). The production of both was stimulated by wheat-straw. Polyclonal antibodies against purified AAO were obtained, and a complex of glucanase and colloidal gold was prepared. With these tools, the localization of AAO and extracellular glucan in mycelium from liquid medium and straw degraded under solid-state fermentation conditions was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy. These studies revealed that P. eryngii produces a hyphal sheath consisting of a thin glucan layer. This sheath appeared to be involved in both mycelial adhesion to the straw cell wall during degradation and AAO immobilization on hyphal surfaces, with th...
Biomolecular interactions over the surface of a microcantilever can produce its bending motion via changes of the surface stress, which is referred to nanomechanical response. Here, we have studied the interaction forces responsible for the bending motion during the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of thiolated 27-mer single-stranded DNA on the gold-coated side of a microcantilever and during the subsequent hybridization with the complementary nucleic acid. The immobilization of the single-stranded DNA probe gives a mean surface stress of 25 mN/m and a mean bending of 23 nm for microcantilevers with a length and thickness of about 200 ?m and 0.8 ?m, respectively. The hybridization with the complementary sequence could not be inferred from the nanomechanical response. The nanomechanical response was compared with data from ...
Comment: Submitted to JINST
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