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Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.
High-efficiency collection of photons emitted by a point source over a wide field of view (FoV) is crucial for many applications. Multiscale optics offer improved light collection by utilizing small optical components placed close to the optical source, while maintaining a wide FoV provided by conventional imaging optics. In this work, we demonstrate collection efficiency of 26% of photons emitted by a pointlike source using a micromirror fabricated in silicon with no significant decrease in collection efficiency over a 10 mm object space. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America
We investigated the ferroelectric properties of strontium titanate (STO) thin films deposited on SrTiO3 (001) substrate with SrRuO3 electrodes. The STO layer was grown coherently on the SrTiO3 substrate without in-plane lattice relaxation, but its out-of-plane lattice constant increased with a decrease in the oxygen pressure during deposition. Using piezoresponse force microscopy and P-V measurements, we showed that our tetragonal STO films possess room-temperature ferroelectricity. We discuss the possible origins of the observed ferroelectricity.
The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to analyze the nitrifying microbial communities in an activated sludge reactor (ASR) and a fixed biofilm reactor (FBR) for piggery wastewater treatment. Heterotrophic oxidation and nitrification were occurring simultaneously in the ASR and the COD and nitrification efficiencies depend on the loads. In the FBR nitrification efficiency also depends on ammonium load to the reactor and nitrite was accumulated when free ammonia concentration was higher than 0.2 mg NH3-N/L. FISH analysis showed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (NSO1225) and denitrifying bacteria (RRP1088) were less abundant than other bacteria (EUB338) in ASR. Further analysis on nitrifying bacteria in the FBR showed that Nitrosomonas species (NSM156) and Nitrospira species (NSR1156) were the dominant ammonia-oxidizing a...
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