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Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev. B
Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Physical Review A
Comment: no correction, 3 pages, RevTex
Comment: no essential correction, 4 pages, RevTex
Comment: no essential correction, 4 pages, 1 figure, RevTex
An exact reduced-density-operator for the output quantum states in time-convolutionless form was derived by solving the quantum Liouville equation which governs the dynamics of a noisy quantum channel by using a projection operator method and both advanced and retarded propagators in time. The formalism developed in this work is general enough to model a noisy quantum channel provided specific forms of the Hamiltonians for the system, reservoir, and the mutual interaction between the system and the reservoir are given. Then, we apply the formulation to model a two-bit quantum gate composed of coupled spin systems in which the Heisenberg coupling is controlled by the tunneling barrier between neighboring quantum dots. Gate Characteristics including the entropy, fidelity, and purity are calculated numerically for both mixed and entangl...
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