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Pedestrian headform impact tests are used to assess the relative level of danger that a vehicle poses to the head of a struck pedestrian. The tests are conducted using a dummy headform that is launched at specific locations on the front of a stationary vehicle. The conditions of the test are specified in the relevant test protocol, and include the mass of the headform, the impact speed, and the impact angle. There are test protocols for vehicle design regulations and for new car assessment programs, each of which may specify different test conditions. Previous studies have not examined in detail the influence of the test conditions on the result of the test, as measured via the Head Injury Criterion (HIC). HIC is proportional to the duration and magnitude of the acceleration of the headform during the impact. In this thesis, a theoreti...
Copyright © 2008 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by Elsevier Inc.
There are many contexts in which exact measurement is impossible or impracticable, and human judgment (more or less expert) is resorted to. Studies of the reproducibility of such judgments are common, and often include two-way tables of frequencies with both variables ordered --- for example, proficiency in speaking Russian as judged by two raters, or health of plants as judged by two raters. It may happen that the bivariate normal distribution is a good fit to the data. But suppose this is not the case, and instead there is asymmetry in the table of frequencies, with the raters disagreeing more about the relatively expert Russian speakers than about the novices, or about the relatively healthy plants than about the less healthy? A bivariate distribution is invented, the chief features of which are that it is a variables-in-common mo...
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