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Networked control systems (NCSs) are a type of distributed control systems where sensors, actuators, and controllers are interconnected through a communication network. This system setup has the advantage of low cost, °exibility, and less wiring, but it also inevitably invites some delays and data loss into the design procedure. The focus of this thesis is to address the problem of analysis and design of networked control systems when the communication delays are varying in a random fashion. This random feature of the time delays is typical for commercially used networks, such as a DeviceNet (which is a controller area network (CAN)) and Ethernet network. Models for communication network delays are ¯rst developed, in which Markov processes are used to model these random network-induced delays. Based on such models, we establish novel m...
An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions.
This article examines the time series behavior of two important tourism statistical variables: ITR (International Tourism Receipts) and NITAC (Number of International Tourist Arrivals to China) over the past two decades (1984-2004). Our unit root tests reveal that both series are integrated of order one, with the shocks having permanent effects. Information criteria used for the unit root tests suggest ARIMA (2, 1, and 2) and ARIMA (1, 1, and 0) models for series ITR and NITAC, respectively. No tests are statistically significant at the 5 percent or higher confidence levels, which indicates that the data are completely random and the models are adequate. The models can best describe the behavior of tourism growth variables.
The serum and glucocorticoid inducible-kinase-1 (SGK1) is expressed following cell stress and exposure to a variety of hormones including gluco- and mineralocorticoids. It is activated by insulin and growth factors via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and the 3-phosphoinositide dependent kinase PDK1. SGK1 enhances the activity of a variety of ion channels, such as ENaC, TRPV5, ROMK, KCNE1/KCNQ1 and ClCKb, carriers, such as NHE3, NKCC2, NCC and SGLT1, as well as the Na+/K+-ATPase. SGK1 contributes to Na+ retention and K+ elimination of the kidney as well as mineralocorticoid stimulation of salt appetite. A certain SGK1 gene variant (combined polymorphisms in intron 6 [I6CC] and in exon 8 [E8CC/CT]) is associated with moderately enhanced blood pressure. The SGK1 gene variant has been shown to affect 3–5 % of Caucasians and some 10% of Afric...
In this paper, we investigate two different frameworks for assessing the risk in a multi-period decision process: a dynamically inconsistent formulation (whereby a single, static risk measure is applied to the entire sequence of future costs), and a dynamically consistent one, obtained by suitably composing one-step risk mappings. We characterize the class of dynamically consistent measures that provide a tight approximation for a given inconsistent measure, and discuss how the approximation factors can be computed. For the case where the consistent measures are given by Average Value-at-Risk, we derive a polynomial-time algorithm for approximating an arbitrary inconsistent distortion measure. We also present exact analytical bounds for the case where the dynamically inconsistent measure is also given by Average Value-at-Risk, and brie...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder, which has been associated with atypical neural synchronization. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to study the differences in functional connectivity in bilateral inferior frontal cortices (IFC) and bilateral temporal cortices (TC) between ASD and typically developing (TD) children between 8 and 11 years of age. As the first report of fNIRS study on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in children with ASD, ten children with ASD and ten TD children were recruited in this study for 8 minute resting state measurement. Compared to TD children, children with ASD showed reduced interhemispheric connectivity in TC. Children with ASD also showed significantly lower local connectivity in bilateral temporal cortices. In contrast to ...
Addition of protease instead of seeds using a robot can be used to optimize the concentration of protease in in situ proteolysis experiments and has been successfully tested using two proteins.
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