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ALICE adopted a strategy to develop a virtual interface to the detector simulation codes, the Virtual Monte Carlo [1], with which the transport of particles can be performed with three different detector simulation codes: GEANT 3.21 [2], Geant4 [3], and FLUKA [4]. The Root geometrical modeller, TGeo [5], was adopted by ALICE as the unique geometry description in the simulation and reconstruction framework. This implied the integration of the TGeo geometrical modeller with all the transport codes used. GEANT3 was the most frequently used detector transport codes in past years, however, the recent LHC data production has created a greater interest in other transport codes. In this paper we will present our experience with Geant4. We will give an overview and the present status of the tools used in the Geant4 simulation: the implementatio...
Comment: 8 pages, 12 figures, for the CHEP03 conference proceedings
The concept of Virtual Monte Carlo (VMC) has been developed by the ALICE Software Project to allow different Monte Carlo simulation programs to run without changing the user code, such as the geometry definition, the detector response simulation or input and output formats. Recently, the VMC classes have been integrated into the ROOT framework, and the other relevant packages have been separated from the AliRoot framework and can be used individually by any other HEP project. The general concept of the VMC and its set of base classes provided in ROOT will be presented. Existing implementations for Geant3, Geant4 and FLUKA and simple examples of usage will be described.
Comment: Talk from the 2003 Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP03), La Jolla, Ca, USA, March 2003, 8 pages, LaTeX, 6 eps figures. PSN THJT006. See http://root.cern.ch/root/vmc/VirtualMC.html
The current status of the Geant4 toolkit and the recent developments for the geometry, electromagnetic and hadronic physics for medium and high energy are presented. The focus of many recent improvements of the toolkit are key applications including the simulation of large Hadron collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. These developments and physics model extensions provide new capabilities and improvements for other applications of the toolkit for radiation studies in high energy physics (HEP), space and medical research.
The elliptic, v2v2, triangular, v3v3, and quadrangular, v4v4, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions, and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at View the MathML sourcesNN=2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range |η|<0.8|η|<0.8 at different collision centralities and as a function of transverse momentum, pTpT, out to pT=20 GeV/cpT=20 GeV/c. The observed non-zero elliptic and triangular flow depends only weakly on transverse momentum for pT>8 GeV/cpT>8 GeV/c. The small pTpT dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to p...
The production cross section of electrons from semileptonic decays of beauty hadrons was measured at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.8) in the transverse momentum range 1 < pt < 8 Gev/c with the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC in pp collisions at a center of mass energy sqrt{s} = 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 2.2 nb^{-1}. Electrons from beauty hadron decays were selected based on the displacement of the decay vertex from the collision vertex. A perturbative QCD calculation agrees with the measurement within uncertainties. The data were extrapolated to the full phase space to determine the total cross section for the production of beauty quark-antiquark pairs.
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