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Movements of individual domain walls in a ferromagnetic garnet were studied with angstrom resolution. The measurements reveal that domain walls can be locked between adjacent crystallographic planes and propagate by distinct steps matching the lattice periodicity. Domain walls are found to be weakly mobile within valleys of the atomic washboard but become unexpectedly flexible on Peierls ridges, where they can be kept in a bi-stable state by ac magnetic field. We describe the latter observation in terms of a single magnetic kink propagating along a domain wall.
Comment: Since v1: minor changes to text and figures to improve clarity; references added. Submitted to Applied Physics Letters, 30-Apr-07. 3 pages, 3 figures
Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for Nano Letters. v4 includes corrections to theory, updated references, corrected typos
Graphene is only one atom thick, optically transparent, chemically inert and an excellent conductor. These properties seem to make this material an excellent candidate for applications in various photonic devices that require conducting but transparent thin films. In this letter we demonstrate liquid crystal devices with electrodes made of graphene which show excellent performance with a high contrast ratio. We also discuss the advantages of graphene compared to conventionally-used metal oxides in terms of low resistivity, high transparency and chemical stability.
We describe the identification of single- and few- layer boron nitride. Its optical contrast is much smaller than that of graphene but even monolayers are discernable by optimizing viewing conditions. Raman spectroscopy can be used to confirm BN monolayers. They exhibit an upshift in the fundamental Raman mode by up to 4 cm-1. The number of layers in thicker crystals can be counted by exploiting an integer-step increase in the Raman intensity and optical contrast.
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.
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