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Iteration is a dominant though unwelcome feature of product development. Controlling this iteration can reduce the time needed to complete product development projects. Management must decide how long each project should spend in a design stage before it undergoes a design review (or test). This paper presents a model of iteration that can be used to make this decision. The paper considers the single-project case and two scenarios in which multiple projects require a common reviewer. These results give some insight into how managers should control iteration to improve their product development processes.
Simulation models have been developed for use in evaluating the performance of mass vaccination clinics; spreadsheet forms of these models have also been produced for the benefit of end-users without access to simulation software. The same clinics are modeled in several queueing software packages, and the performance of the models is compared.
This paper presents approximations for open queueing network models used to estimate the performance of mass dispensing and vaccination clinics. The approximations include the wait-in-batch-time, the departure variability at self-service stations, and the arrival variability for process batches.
This paper describes a neural network-based design similarity measure for a variant fixture planning approach. The goal is to retrieve, for a new product design, a useful fixture from a given set of existing designs and their fixtures. However, since calculating each fixture feasibility and then determining the necessary modifications for infeasible fixtures would require too much effort, the approach searches quickly for the most promising fixtures. The proposed approach uses a design similarity measure to find existing designs that are likely to have useful fixtures. The use of neural networks to generate design similarity measures is explored.This paper describes the back-propagation algorithm for network learning and highlights some of the implementation details involved. The neural network-based design similarity measure is compa...
Design optimization is an important engineering design activity. When used during the development of a new product, the overall profitability of that product depends upon the quality of the solution that the optimization model returns as well as the time and cost of using optimization. There exist many different ways to use optimization. The design engineer wants to select the most appropriate optimization model to create a profitable design. This paper discusses this meta-design (or meta-reasoning) problem and presents a method for selecting the best (most profitable) optimization model from a set of candidate optimization models. The approach allows multiple ways to handle uncertainty about the optimization models. We demonstrate the approach by considering the optimization of a universal electric motor.
Service enterprise engineering often involves designing systems that perform routine decision-making, as in business processes. However, exceptional events, which require effective decision-making to coordinate the response, are not routine. This paper presents a systematic, scenario-based methodology for designing such a decision-making system. The approach is based on the operational procedure methodology that has been used for developing avionics systems. The paper discusses an application to the case of medical disaster mutual aid, in which multiple hospitals must coordinate activities to respond to a mass casualty incident.
Supply chain simulation is a very useful tool in the decision making process either for implementing a new supply chain or for making changes to an existing one. The effort required in building supply chain simulation models can be reduced to a great extent by building modules that can be put together to represent the activities of the supply chain. In this work, supply chain simulation templates have been developed based on Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model proposed by the Supply Chain Council. The templates have been built by integrating Arena with Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic.

Another objective of the work is to analyze the effect of rescheduling frequency on the performance of the supply chain. Order release decisions control the flow of work in a supply chain system. The frequency of these activities and the c...

A manufacturing system characterized by its stochastic nature, is defined by both qualitative and quantitative variables. Often there exists a situation when a performance measure such as throughput, work-in-process or cycle time of the system needs to be optimized with respect to some decision variables. It is generally convenient to express a manufacturing system in the form of an analytical model, to get the solutions as quickly as possible. However, as the complexity of the system increases, it gets more and more difficult to accommodate that complexity into the analytical model due to the uncertainty involved. In such situations, we resort to simulation modeling as an effective alternative.

Equipment selection forms a separate class of problems in the domain of manufacturing systems. It assumes a high significance for capital-in...

This report presents a perspective for addressing one of our enterprises main future issues, the environment. The decision production system perspective represents a product development organization as a network of decision-makers and information processors through which information flows. This representation can be used to improve product development processes by providing a deeper understanding of information flows and key decisions.
Research in product design optimization has developed and demonstrated a variety of modeling techniques and solution methods, including multidisciplinary design optimization. As new techniques migrate to the industrial world engineers are faced with much more complex problems often extending beyond their realm of knowledge. A novel classification scheme is proposed and demonstrated to offer engineers a method of organizing and searching for relevant example problems to assist in the production of their own optimization problem. To explore the tradeoff between information requirements and solution quality, computational experiments are conducted on two design problems, a bathroom scale and a universal electric motor. In particular, the results of these experiments identify the additional information required to solve a profit maximizati...
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