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Australian care facilities may find need for more refined assessment instruments than the mandatory Residential Classification Scale for some purposes. The Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects (MOSES) may be useful for many such diverse purposes in residential care or in applications or research in the community. MOSES was developed to provide a measure of psychosocial functioning in older adults in residential care, covering five domains: Self-care, Disorientation, Depression/Anxiety, Irritability, and Withdrawal. A parallel form that is usable for individuals who are residing in the community has also been developed. The development and structure of MOSES will be summarized to provide evidence for its utility. The major part of this paper summarizes some of the applications of MOSES that have taken place since its ...
There continues to be a lack of consensus on the meaning and definition of the concept of quality of life. An implicit distinction for many measures of quality of life is from measures of health status based upon the presence of disability in functional domains. A further assumption in many scales is that quality of life is a unitary construct. The Osteoporosis Functional Disability Questionnaire (OFDQ) assessed some domains of function but is not unidimensional. It was developed to evaluate the progress and outcome of a structured exercise program for people with spinal compression fractures due to osteoporosis. The OFDQ assesses five domains relevant to the pain and disability in this population: pain, depression, function in performing common daily activities, socialization, and confidence in the exercise program. Longitudinal data ...
The MMPI-2 continues to be widely used in many areas of professional forensic psychology, including the evaluation of criminal offenders for rehabilitation purposes. While many possible applications of the MMPI exist, not all are well-supported by strong empirical evidence. The origins of the scale among psychiatric populations suggest some utility in detecting other forms of psychopathology in use with offenders. In many applications with offenders, the utility of the validity scales and indicators of the MMPI/MMPI-2 in the detection of invalid or questionable profiles may rival the interpretation of the clinical scales in value. This commentary summarizes issues and research upon the nature and utility of the MMPI/MMPI-2 scales and indices that have been developed to detect various forms of response distortion that can affect the val...
Individuals with chronic psychological disturbances may undergo psychological assessment at some point in order to document any notable cognitive deficits associated with the disorder or because of concerns related to side effects of treatments. Education level, gender, and active treatment with psychoactive medication have been shown to influence performance on tests of learning and memory. Participants are 233 people (70 males) with chronic psychological disorders with strict exclusion criteria to rule out those with epilepsy or reports of abnormal EEG, with evidence of cerebral infarct from brain scan, CT, or MRI imaging, and any positive signs from neurological examination of abnormal reflexes or neuromuscular or sensory defects. The mean age was 32.7 years (SD = 15.8), with a mean of 10.3 years of education (SD = 3.1 years). Perso...
[Extract] Clinical psychology training models vary widely in different legal jurisdictions, occasionally even those within the same country. Clinical psychology is also comparatively new as a health care profession in comparison to other disciplines, suggesting that different factors may influence its development over older professions such as nursing and medicine. There are therefore many factors that influence what approach is taken to training clinical psychologists. Here I contrast various historical, social, legislative and organizational factors that have influenced the state of training in clinical psychology in two countries with well-developed training models from opposite hemispheres, Australia and Canada. A final section then explores the progress in developing clinical training in an equatorial country that is just developi...
Objective: Drawing tests have a long history in neuropsychological assessment. Such tasks have used a range of abstract shapes and objects, including Simple geometric figures, houses, 3-dimensional cubes, and human figures. A popular geometric figure has been the two intersecting pentagons originally popularized in the Bender Gestalt test. Reproducing the pentagons was the main visuospatial task on the original Mini Mental State Examination, and it remains in use in the revised version of that widely used screening text. Scoring criteria on the MMSE are binary: perfect reproduction of two five-sided figures with a four-sided figure at the intersection. The modified MMSE of Teng and Chui (1987) used more refined 10-point scoring for the elements of the figure, which should be more reliable and provide better group discrimination. Parti...
The publication in 2000 of the paper Psychology and Ageing by the Australian Psychological Society (APS) represented the first substantial effort by the APS to address the issues faced by older people in modern Australian society. This comment summarises some of the developments in the United States that affect psychological services for older adults there in order to place developments in Australia into some perspective. Five of the 42 recommendations made in the 2000 paper are noted with comments on the modest progress and developments to date in advancing psychological services for older people in Australia.
The year 2005 provided the 65th anniversary of the first official publication on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (Hathaway aud McKinley, 1940). There are comparatively few psychological tests which continue to be in current clinical use from their original development. This length of use of a psychological test has few rivals. It is predated by some decades by the introduction of the Rorschach and the Stanford Binet and is roughly equal in age to the series of intelligence and memory tests that were begun by David Wechsler during the same period of time in the late 1930s. As with the Wechsler and Binet scales, and unlike the Rorschach, the venerable MMPI has undergone recent development and change, albeit not on as regular schedule or as extensive change as has been the case with the Wechsler scales. Since its in...
Background: Drawing tests have a long history in neuropsychological assessment. A popular geometric figure has been the two intersecting pentagons from the Bender Gestalt test. Reproducing the pentagons is the main visuospatial task on the original Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), remaining in use in revised versions of that widely used screening test. Scoring criteria on the MMSE are binary: perfect reproduction of the figure is required, while the Modified MMSE of Teng and Chui (1987) uses a more refined ten-point scoring for the elements of the figure. Methods: Here, I report on the use of pentagon drawing from 8,702 older community-dwelling Canadians (59.3% female), with a mean age of 75.5 years (SD = 6.99) and 10.1 years of education (SD = 3.89). Mean scores for the whole sample are reported, as well as for subsamples who ...
Response distortion remains a significant issue in the assessment of psychopathology. Here four groups of psychiatric patients, each of 40 people, were asked to respond honestly or to distort their presentation as either worse, better, or a "normal" pattern of responses to the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI; Jackson, 1989); only those cases showing acceptable consistency in responding ("person reliability") were analysed. Performance of the conventional cutting points on the BPI validity scales were compared with results from linear discriminant analysis calculated for the patients and from those variables selected previously for university students by Helmes and Holden (1986). Preliminary analyses showed that the "good" and "normal" groups could not be separated; the normal group was therefore not included in subsequent analyses. Re...
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