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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is increasingly recognized as a prevalent anxiety disorder with a chronic course and signifi cant impairment (APA, 2000; Ballenger et al., 2001; Weisberg, 2009). In the Netherlands, according to the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2; De Graaf, Ten Have, & Van Dorsselaar, 2010) GAD was found to have a 4.5% lifetime prevalence rate, and the 12-month prevalence rate was reported to be 1.7%. GAD is a long-term illness with a high likelihood of recurrence. For instance, during the 12 years of a large longitudinal study, the Harvard-Brown Anxiety Research Project (HARP; Bruce et al., 2005), the average amount of time that patients met diagnostic criteria of GAD was 74%. Further, GAD was found to have a probability of recovery of 0.58 in the 12 years the study lasted, and...
Main urinary bacterial metabolites of phenylalanine (total benzoic and phenylacetic acids) and of tyrosine (total p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) were determined by gas chromatography in controls and patients with cystic ubrosis of the pancreas, coeliac disease, intestinal resection and unclassified enteritis. In various patients, especially in the untreated coeliacs, high amounts of one or more of the abovementioned metabolites were found. In this paper results in controls and patients are presented and discussed.
Tyrosyluria and for a part also tyrosinemia were studied in 60 healthy prematures of various birth weights and gestational ages. The first analyses were performed between the 6th and the 14th day after birth. A normal milk diet was given and the protein-intake was between 3 and 4 g/kg. After the first collection of urine half the patients received extra ascorbic acid, 100 mg/kg daily. Urinary analyses of tyrosine and p-hydroxyphenyl metabolites were performed once a week, until the excretion of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic plus p-hydroxyphenyllactic acids was lower than 5 mmoles per gram creatinine. In 22 out of the 60 prematures (or 37%) a tyrosyluria of more than 5 mmoles/g creatinine and in 19 out of 44 (43%) patients analysed serum tyrosine was higher than 5 mg/100 ml at first analysis. No inverse correlation between tyrosyluria and t...
In 26 out of a large group of patients with gastrointestinal disorders abnormal urinary imidazole excretion patterns were found. Most frequently excessive or increased amounts of imidazolepropionic acid (ImPA) occurred, and as next N-acetylhistamine was excreted in excess. In a number of cases the latter was accompanied by a substance identified as N-propionylhistamine. It is suggested that these excretory products are bacterial metabolites of histidine, if not absorbed in the intestinal lumen. All 26 patients excreted increased amounts of bacterial metabolites of tyrosine and/or phenylalanine as well: p-OH-phenylacetic and/or p-OH-benzoic acids and phenylacetic and/or benzoic acids respectively. Many patients showed increased urinary 4-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide, its riboside and an unknown related compound X, especially in a late...
Gas-liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the analysis of: urinary phenylalanine metabolites (I) in patients with phenylketonuria, tyrosine metabolites (II) in patients with a disturbed tyrosine metabolism at the level of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase, and homogentisic acid in alkaptonuria. Metabolites I include: phenylpyruvic, -lactic, -acetic (free and conjugated), -mandelic, o-hydroxyphenylacetic and benzoic (free and conjugated) acids. Metabolites II include: p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic, -lactic, -acetic and p-hydroxymandelic acids. Urinary excretions of phenylalanine and its waste metabolites I in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, at high and moderate loads are given. In 3 patients with classical phenylketonuria the total excretion of phenylalanine and its waste metabolites were found to b...
Worry is a common symptom in various psychiatric problems and the key symptom of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is the most widely used self-report scale for measuring worry. The present study provides normative data for the Dutch version of the PSWQ for a large community sample and a clinically referred sample of patients with GAD. Norms are not only provided for the original 16-item version, but also for an abbreviated 11-item version, which only consists of the positively worded items and has been shown to be a promising alternative to the full-length version. The percentile scores obtained for the community sample and the clinical GAD sample did not show much overlap, and this appeared true for the full-length as well as the abbreviated version of the PSWQ. These normative data seem su...
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