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This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation curve obtained in the experiments is close to perfect and shows that it is necessary to discriminate between the processes of aeolian dust deposition and aeolian dust accumulation. Two important thresholds determine the accumulation process. For wind speeds below the deflation threshold, the aeolian accumulation of dust increases linearly with the wind speed. For wind velocities between the deflation threshold and the accumulation limit, the sedimentation balance is above unity and there is still accumulation, though it rapidly drops once t...
Eight techniques to quantify the deposition of aeolian dust on horizontal surfaces were tested in a wind tunnel. The tests included three theoretical techniques and five measurement techniques. The theoretical techniques investigated were: the gradient technique, the inferential technique without grain-shape correction, and the inferential technique corrected for grain shape. The measuring techniques included the following surrogate surfaces: a water surface, a glass surface, a metal surface, a vertical array of metal plates, and an inverted frisbee filled with glass marbles. The efficiency of the techniques was investigated for the sediment as a whole (all grain sizes together) as well as for a large number of grain sizes extending from 1 to 104 mu m. The surrogate surfaces showed more or less comparable catch efficiencies, although t...
Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of topography on the grain size characteristics of aeolian dust deposits. Experiments were performed on three isolated hills having various size and aspect ratios. The longitudinal profile of the median grain diameter was investigated for each hill. The longitudinal dust deposition profile was also studied for nine grain size classes of between 10 and 104 Rm, as were wind and dust concentration profiles in the atmosphere upwind of, over and downwind of a hill. The wind tunnel experiments show that the grain size characteristics of aeolian dust deposits are affected by topography. Most apparent is the occurrence of a zone of reduced grain size on the leeside of hills, which extends from just upwind of the summit to a distance of several times the height of the hill. Sligh...
In this paper, the main morphometric and dynamic properties of aeolian ripples formed in a wind tunnel during the deposition of natural, silt-sized dust particles over a flat horizontal surface are investigated. Ripples and ripple patterns are studied after 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes of dust deposition, and this for 4 free stream wind velocities ranging from 113 cm.s-1 to 160 cm.s-1 (friction velocity: 3.0 to 3.9 cm.s-1). All velocities are well below deflation threshold. The following ripple parameters are investigated: general ripple shape, ripple spacing, ripple height, ripple flattening, ripple length, ripple symmetry, ripple singularities, ripple orientation, ripple sinuosity and ripple migration. Mean values for the ripple fields as well as dispersion within the ripple fields are examined, and correlations with mean ...
Wind tunnel experiments of aeolian dust deposition on topographic scale models of ranges of hills were conducted. Different hill sizes and hill spacings were used, and comparisons with the deposition patterns over single, isolated hills were made. Dust profiles over ranges of hills differ from the profiles over identical, but isolated hills. On isolated hills the sedimentation maximum on the windward hillslope is always single and located on the concave part of the slope. In the case of ranges of hills, the maximum is either single or double, with the second peak on the convex part of the windward slope in the latter case. The local sedimentation maximum on the convex leeslope, which is rather unimportant on isolated hills, is much more developed in multiple-hill topography. Also, dust deposition on the leeslopes is significantly highe...
Field data are reported for the horizontal and vertical flux of wind-eroded sediment on an agricultural field in northern Germany. Measurements were made during a windstorm that hit the region on 18 May 1999. The magnitude of both fluxes was significantly affected by the presence of a surface crust covering the test field. Measuring the physical crust strength at 45 locations with a torvane, the relationships between crust strength (tau) and the horizontal (F-h) and vertical (F-v) sediment fluxes were investigated. Both fluxes decreased as the surface crust became stronger. The decay behaved as an exponential function for both types of flux. The horizontal sediment flux over a crusted surface can be accurately predicted by completing Marticorena and Bergametti's [Journal of Geophysical Research 100 (1995) 16415] erosion model with a cr...
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