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Polyuridylic acid is adsorbed completely from aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite under conditions that permit template-directed synthesis of oligoadenylates in free solution. The yield of oligoadenylates is enhanced to almost the same extent by poly(U) in the presence or the absence of hydroxyapatite. Under very similar conditions small quantities of hydroxyapatite adsorb higher-molecular-weight oligoadenylates selectively from a mixture of oligomers. On the basis of these results a mechanism for prebiotic oligonucleotide formation is proposed in which selective adsorption on hydroxyapatite or some other immobilized anion-exchanging material plays a major role. Monomers are released from the surface for reactivation, while oligomers are retained in a protected environment by adsorption to the apatite surface.
Shear creep viscometer for measuring viscoelastic and viscous properties of elastomers
[[abstract]]We report the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on bulk and thin-film single crystals of holmium. The scattering at the principal magnetic reflection has been characterized as a function of the temperature in the spiral phases near and below their respective Neel temperatures. The integrated intensity of the principal magnetic peak in both samples shows power-law behavior versus reduced temperature with nearly equal exponents. The exponents for the scattering at the resonant second and third harmonics in the bulk sample are not simple integer multiples of the first, and motivate the consideration of simple scaling corrections to mean-field theory. We also present and compare the results of high-resolution measurements of the temperature dependence of the magnetic wave vectors, c-axis lattice constant...
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