Type

Database

Creator

Date

Thumbnail

Search results

25 records were found.

A RIDGE (Region of IncreaseD Gene Expression), as defined by previous studies, is a consecutive set of active genes on a chromosome that span a region around 110 kbp long. This study investigated RIDGE formation by focusing on the well-defined, immunological important MHC locus. Macrophages were assayed for gene expression levels using the Affymetrix MG-U74Av2 chip are were either 1) uninfected, 2) primed with IFN-g, 3) viral activated with mCMV, or 4) both primed and viral activated. Gene expression data from these conditions was studied using data structures and new software developed for the visualisation and handling of structured functional genomic data. Specifically, the data was used to study RIDGE structures and investigate whether physically linked genes were also functionally related, and exhibited co-expression and potential...
The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate early 1 (IE1) protein has been described as a trans-activator of viral and host gene expression. However, the precise role that IE1 plays in the viral life cycle, and in particular its effect on the host immune response is not known. This thesis investigates the functional relationship of the IE1 protein and the immune response induced after infection. By using an ie1-deletion mutant MCMV (MCMVdie1) it was demonstrated that, early after infection, tumor necrosis factor (tnf ) gene activation and protein production was significantly induced in infected-primary macrophages (M ) to a much greater extent than its wild type counterpart. In addition, preliminary studies on the signalling pathways activated upon infection were carried out in order to gain information about the pathways that might be...
Recently, cholesterol metabolism has been shown to modulate the infection of several viruses and there is growing evidence that inflammatory response to infection also modulates lipid metabolism. However little is known about the role of inflammatory processes in modulating lipid metabolism and their consequences for the viral infection. This study investigates host-lipid viral interaction pathways using mouse cytomegalovirus, a large double-stranded DNA genome, which represents one of the few models for a natural infection of its natural host. In this study, transcriptomic and lipidomic profiling of macrophages shows that there is a specific coordinated regulation of the sterol pathways upon viral infection or treatment with IFNγ or β (but not TNFα, IL1β or IL6) resulting in the decrease of free cellular cholesterol. Furthermore, we s...
The mammalian immune system is capable of detecting and responding to different infectious conditions with specificity at the adaptive level, however whether this ability extends to individual cells of the innate immune system is unclear. The hypothesis of this thesis is that macrophages, as individual cells, can distinguish between productive and non-productive virus infections and respond differently at the gene expression and secreted protein level. To test the hypothesis, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were infected in parallel with either a productive (live) and non-productive (attenuated) strain of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and profiled temporally using a range of techniques. Both productive and non-productive MCMV infection resulted in strong type I IFN induction in BMDMs, however induction was significantly m...
Macrophages are present in virtually all tissues and account for approximately 10% of all body mass. Although classically credited as the scavenger cells of innate immune system, ridding a host of pathogenic material and cellular debris though their phagocytic function, macrophages also play a crucial role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, and inflammation. De-regulation of macrophage function is therefore implicated in the progression of many disease states including cancer, arthritis, and atherosclerosis to name just a few. The diverse range of activities of this cell can be attributed to its exceptional phenotypic plasticity i.e. it is capable of adapting its physiology depending on its environment; for instance in response to different types of pathogens, or specific cocktail of cytokines detected. This plasticity is exemplified by th...
Cytomegaloviruses (CMV), the prototypical β-herpesviruses, have co-evolved with their hosts and thus acquired multiple strategies for modulation of the immune response. Viral engagement of pattern recognition receptors (PRR), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic nucleic acids sensors, initiates the host immune response through activation of elaborate signalling programs. The ensuing inflammatory response is further sustained and amplified through cytokines, such as IL-1β, activating signalling pathways greatly overlapping those utilized by TLRs. The central hypothesis of this thesis is that a viral counter-measure by murine CMV (MCMV) involves specific targeting of TLR- and IL-1β-induced signalling along the MyD88 to NF-κB pathway. To test this hypothesis MCMV inhibition of IL-1β signalling was initially investigated in a f...
The significance of the major immediate-early gene ie3 of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and that of the corresponding ie2 gene of human cytomegalovirus to viral replication are not known. To investigate the function of the MCMV IE3 regulatory protein, we generated two different MCMV recombinants that contained a large deletion in the IE3 open reading frame (ORF). The mutant genomes were constructed by the bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis technique, and MCMV ie3 deletion mutants were reconstituted on a mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses the MCMV major immediate-early genes. The ie3 deletion mutants failed to replicate on normal mouse fibroblasts even when a high multiplicity of infection was used. The replication defect was rescued when the IE3 protein was provided in trans by a complementing cell line. A revertant viru...
The cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer is a highly complex regulatory region containing multiple elements that interact with a variety of host-encoded transcription factors. Many of these sequence elements are conserved among the different species strains of CMV, although the arrangement of the various elements and overall sequence composition of the CMV enhancers differ remarkably. To delineate the importance of this region to a productive infection and to explore the possibility of generating a murine CMV (MCMV) under the control of human CMV (HCMV) genetic elements, the MCMV enhancer was resected and replaced either with nonregulatory sequences or with paralogous sequences from HCMV. The effects of these various deletions and substitutions on viral growth in transfected or infected tissue-culture cells were evaluated. We found that muta...
Want to know more?If you want to know more about this cutting edge product, or schedule a demonstration on your own organisation, please feel free to contact us or read the available documentation at http://www.keep.pt/produtos/retrievo/?lang=en