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Comment: Theory removed. More experimental details. One extra figure
The existence of the third cumulant $S_{3}$ of voltage fluctuations has demonstrated the non-Gaussian aspect of shot noise in electronic transport. Until now, measurements have been performed at low frequency, \textit{i.e.} in the classical regime $\hbar \omega < eV, k_BT$ where voltage fluctuations arise from charge transfer process. We report here the first measurement of $S_3$ at high frequency, in the quantum regime $\hbar \omega > eV, k_BT$. In this regime, experiment cannot be seen as a charge counting statistics problem anymore. It raises central questions of the statistics of quantum noise: 1) the electromagnetic environment of the sample has been proven to strongly influence the measurement, through the possible modulation of the noise of the sample. What happens to this mechanism in the quantum regime? 2) For $\hbar \omega ...
We report the first measurement of high order cumulants of the current fluctuations in an avalanche diode run through by a stationary dc current. Such a system is archetypic of devices in which transport is governed by a collective mechanism, here charge multiplication by avalanche. We have measured the first 5 cumulants of the probability distribution of the current fluctuations. We show that the charge multiplication factor is distributed according to a power law that is different from that of the usual avalanche below breakdown, when avalanches are well separated.
Comment: to appear in Review Volume: Perspectives of Mesoscopic Physics - Dedicated to Prof. Yoseph Imry's 70th Birthday
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