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Light and heavy ions particle therapy, mainly by means of protons and carbon ions, represents an advantageous treatment modality for deep-seated and/or radioresistant tumours. An in-beam quality assurance principle is based on the detection of secondary particles induced by nuclear fragmentations between projectile and target nuclei. Three different strategies are currently under investigation: prompt γ rays imaging, proton interaction vertex imaging and in-beam positron emission tomography. Geant4 simulations have been performed first in order to assess the accuracy of some hadronic models to reproduce experimental data. Two different kinds of data have been considered: β+-emitting isotopes and prompt γ-ray production rates. On the one hand simulations reproduce experimental β+ emitting isotopes production rates to an accuracy of 24%....
Purpose: Proton and carbon ion therapies are a very attractive treatment modality thanks to their well-defined range in matter and specific depth dose characteristics. However, it is very hard to precisely predict the exact location of the depth dose steep fall-off in the patient. This is mainly due to inaccuracies and non-uniqueness in the conversion from the Hounsfield Unit into ion stopping power, anatomical changes, patient positioning and movement. Because of these uncertainties, in-vivo ion range verification would be a key issue which would allow improvement in the precision of such methods of treatment delivery.
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