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Adenovirus (Ad) replicative complexes form at discrete sites on the nuclear matrix (NM) through the interaction of Ad preterminal protein (pTP). The NM is a highly salt-resistant fibrillar network which is known to anchor transcription, mRNA splicing, and DNA replication complexes. Incubation of rATP with NM to which pTP was bound caused the release of pTP as a pTP-NM complex with a size of 220 to 230 kDa; incubation with 5' adenylylimidodiphosphate (rAMP-PNP) showed no significant release, indicating that rATP hydrolysis was required. With NM extracts, it was shown that a pTP-NM complex which was capable of binding Ad origin DNA could be reconstituted in vitro. A number of high-molecular-weight NM proteins ranging in size from 120 to 200 kDa were identified on Far Western blots for their ability to bind pTP. rATP-dependent release of ...
Entry of human adenovirus into cells is a two-step process, mediated in the first step by a specific interaction between the trimeric fiber protein and a specific receptor on the surface of susceptible cells. Because of the interest in human adenovirus as a vector for gene therapy, we have mapped domains in the fiber protein that are important for proper assembly of this trimeric structure and for proper addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (0-GlcNAc). Mutants of adenovirus type 2 fiber in this study were expressed in human cells by use of a recombinant vaccinia virus expression system that yielded protein indistinguishable from the fiber produced during adenovirus infection. The N-terminal half of the protein did not appear to influence fiber trimer formation, since deletions up to 260 amino acids (aa) from the N-terminal end as w...
Plant-parasitic nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne are capable to induce giant cells that undergo repeated mitosis without cytokinesis possibly alternated with endoreduplication cycles. Promoter activity and mRNA localization of key cell cycle genes like CDKA;1, CDKB1;1, CYCB1;1, and CYCA2;1 showed early induction of these genes in both nematode feeding site (NFS). In addition, disturbance in NFS development and nematode maturation were observed during treatment of infected roots with cell cycle inhibitors. DNA synthesis experiments demonstrated that both feeding sites undergo extra endocycles possibly justifying the large nuclei present in NFC. How precisely nematodes manipulate the cell cycle in their favor remains to be understood. A systematic comparison of the temporal and spatial expression pattern of different classes of core c...
Background and aims Kip-related-proteins (KRPs), negative regulators of cell division, have recently been discovered in plants but their in planta function is as yet unclear. In this study the spatial expression of all seven KRP genes in shoot apices of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared. Methods In situ hybridization analyses were performed on longitudinal sections of shoot apices from 2-month-old Arabidopsis plants. Key Results The study provides evidence for different expression pattern groups. KRP1 and KRP2 expression is restricted to the endoreduplicating tissues. In contrast, KRP4 and KRP5 expression is mainly restricted to mitotically dividing cells. KRP3, KRP6 and KRP7 can be found in both mitotically dividing and endoreduplicating cells. Conclusion The results suggest differential roles for the distinct KRPs. KRP1 and KRP2 mig...
The intranuclear assembly of herpesvirus subviral particles remains an incompletely understood process. Previous studies have described the nuclear localization of capsid and tegument proteins as well as intranuclear tegumentation of capsid-like particles. The temporally and spatially regulated replication of viral DNA suggests that assembly may also be regulated by compartmentalization of structural proteins. We have investigated the intranuclear location of several structural and nonstructural proteins of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Tegument components including pp65 (ppUL83) and ppUL69 and capsid components including the major capsid protein (pUL86) and the small capsid protein (pUL48/49) were retained within the nuclear matrix (NM), whereas the immediate-early regulatory proteins IE-1 and IE-2 were present in the soluble nuclear ...
The intranuclear assembly of herpesvirus subviral particles remains an incompletely understood process. Previous studies have described the nuclear localization of capsid and tegument proteins as well as intranuclear tegumentation of capsid-like particles. The temporally and spatially regulated replication of viral DNA suggests that assembly may also be regulated by compartmentalization of structural proteins. We have investigated the intranuclear location of several structural and nonstructural proteins of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Tegument components including pp65 (ppUL83) and ppUL69 and capsid components including the major capsid protein (pUL86) and the small capsid protein (pUL48/49) were retained within the nuclear matrix (NM), whereas the immediate-early regulatory proteins IE-1 and IE-2 were present in the soluble nuclear ...
A key regulator of the cell cycle is a highly conserved protein kinase whose catalytic subunit, p34(cdc2), is encoded by the cdc2 gene. We studied the control of the expression of the Arabidopsis cdc2a gene in cell suspensions and during plant development. In cell cultures, arrest of the cell cycle did not significantly affect cdc2a mRNA levels, but nutrient conditions were important for cdc2a expression. During plant development, the pattern of cdc2a expression was strongly correlated with the cell proliferation potential. The effects of external signals on cdc2a expression were analyzed. Wounding induced expression in leaves. Lack of light altered temporal regulation of cdc2a in the apical but not root meristem of seedlings. Differential cdc2a responses were obtained after different hormone treatments. Signals present only in intact ...
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