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The design and manufacture of a RC model boat is a component of the compulsory paper ENGG180 for first year engineering students at the University of Waikato. ENGG180 is a foundation of engineering paper which includes project-based learning, fundamental principles of engineering design and engineering analysis. The model boats made by undergraduate engineering students are rather primitive in design and use conventional manufacturing methods. The conventional methods used by students, to make the hulls are a very labour intense and inaccurate. In the present method there is no direct link between the CAD model and the manufactured hull due to the absence of computer-aided machining. However using conventional methods, students get more knowledge on how parts are manufactured. These conventional methods of fabrication are used because ...
In this study a novel building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) solar collector was developed, tested, modelled and optimised both experimentally and theoretically. Experimental testing found that glazing the prototype collector improved the maximum thermal efficiency by approximately 25% and decreased heat loss, by a factor of two, relative to an unglazed collector. Additionally, the spectral absorptance of a photovoltaic (PV) cell and several coloured absorber samples were characterised. The experimental data was subsequently used in the development and validation of an optimisation model for BIPVT style collectors. Numerical optimisation showed that the collector thermal efficiency could be improved by maximising the geometric fin efficiency, reducing the thermal resistance between the PV cells and the absorber, and by incre...
The need for a technical standard for the conversion of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles to electric drive has been identified by government regulators in New Zealand (NZ). The aim of this project was to review the technical and inspection requirements that would allow Electric Vehicle (EV) conversions of passenger vehicles of gross weight < 3500 kg (Class MA), to be safely designed, built, sold, and operated in NZ. A detailed description of the spectrum of EV technology is given. A literature review of NZ and international transport regulations and technical standards has shown many requirements affecting EVs. A risk analysis showed that most EV technological risks related to electrical, battery and braking safety are controlled by implementing a reduction in risk event likelihood, rather than a reduction in risk event severi...
The recent increased interest in renewable energy has created a need for research in the area of solar technology, particularly solar water heating collectors and systems. In this study a new design of a building integrated thermal (BIT) collector was developed and experimentally tested. The subsequent result of this was the viability of its use in a water heating system for domestic application in a country like New Zealand, can be investigated. Experimental results showed that the unglazed and glazed collector can achieve thermal efficiencies of 39% and 75%, respectively. A comparison of the glazed BIT with an integrated collector of a similar design showed that the maximum thermal efficiency of 75% was relatively high; however, the downside to this is that high losses also occurred. A theoretical viewpoint of the collector showed...
A building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) system based on long-run metal roofing is being developed at the University of Waikato in partnership with Dimond Ltd., a long-run roof product manufacturer. The concept consists of a CNC folded metal roofing sheet with a central channel and a collector plate bonded to the roofing sheet to create a sealed channel for thermal fluid flow. PV laminates are bonded to the collector plate and inlet and outlet manifolds attached for thermal fluid distribution. When exposed to solar radiation the system generates heat and electricity for domestic and industry use. BIPVT manufacturing methods were investigated for creating the sealed channel for thermal fluid flow. Adhesives (ADH), resistance seam welding (RSW) and autoclaving (ATC) were considered the most suitable. Processes were desi...
The conversion of solar energy into usable forms of energy such as electricity and heat is attractive given the abundance of solar energy and the numerous issues recently raised in the consumption of fossil fuels. Solar conversion technologies may generally be categorised as either photovoltaic or solar thermal types capable of converting incidental sunlight into electricity and heat respectively. The photovoltaic cell is able to transform incidental sunlight into electricity via the Becquerel effect, however, the single junction crystalline silicon solar cell, the predominant cell type in today’s photovoltaic market is only able to utilise a small portion (less than 20%) of incidental sunlight for this purpose. A majority of the remaining portion is absorbed much like a traditional solar thermal collector and sunk as heat by the cell,...
This thesis is devoted to investigate the capability of the Superposition Method for obtaining the transient response of plates and the natural frequencies of thin doubly curved shallow shells. The Superposition Method gives accurate results with only a few terms and has proved to be efficient for both cases. To investigate the transient response, all supports of a thin simply supported rectangular plate under self weight are suddenly removed. The resulting motion comprises a combination of the natural modes of a completely free plate. The modal superposition method is used for determining the transient response. The modes and natural frequencies of the plate are obtained using the Superposition Method and the Rayleigh-Ritz method with the ordinary and degenerated free-free beam functions. The W–W algorithm is then used to delimit the ...
The buckling and post-buckling behaviours of corrugated paperboard packaging structures are the focus of this study. The motivations for this study are to improve understanding of post-buckling behaviour to better predict packaging performance and investigate reasons for the discrepancy between experimental and predicted results reported in literature. The research questions posed consider how post-buckling behaviour of corrugated paperboard panels are affected by varying in-plane boundary conditions and using multi-term out-of-plane displacement functions in analytical Galerkin’s method models with symmetric and / or anti-symmetric geometric imperfections. The panels of varying in-plane boundary conditions and geometric imperfections were also modelled by the Finite Element (FE) method. The material properties of corrugated paperboar...
Several methods are currently available to determine the values of series and shunt resistance of a solar cell. A new method is presented here to numerically locate these values using the popular Newton–Raphson technique at maximum power point. Equations based on the Lambert W-function and their partial derivatives are provided so that all calculations may be performed in a Matlab or similar environment. The results of this new method are presented and compared with two published methods and the analytically obtained for a blue and grey type solar cell in earlier work (Charles et al., 1981). Additionally, three modules of various type (single, poly, and amorphous crystalline) were investigated. Values determined agreed with experimentally verified results and were obtained with quadratic convergence in all instances provided initial es...
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