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Established dietary predictors of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) include folate, riboflavin, and vitamins B6 and B12, while information is scarce regarding other dietary components. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between a variety of food groups, food items and nutrients, and plasma tHcy in a large population-based study. The study population included 5812 men and women aged 47–49 and 71–74 years who completed a 169-item FFQ. tHcy was examined across quartiles of dietary components by multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, various risk factors for elevated tHcy, as well as for dietary and plasma B-vitamins. Among 4578 non-users of vitamin supplements, intake of vegetables, fruits, cereals, eggs, fish and milk, as well as chicken and non-processed meats were inversely associated w...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relation between serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and insulin action and secretion. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study of 446 Pan-European subjects with the metabolic syndrome, insulin action and secretion were assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes and intravenous glucose tolerance test to calculate acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity, and disposition index. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS The 25(OH)D3 concentration was 57.1 ± 26.0 nmol/l (mean ± SD), and only 20% of the subjects had 25(OH)D3 levels ≥75 nmol/l. In multiple linear analyses, 25(OH)D3 concentrations were not associated with parameters of insulin action or secretion after adjustment for BMI and other covariat...
The application of metabolomics in multi-centre studies is increasing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of geographical location on the metabolic profiles of individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Blood and urine samples were collected from 219 adults from seven European centres participating in the LIPGENE project (Diet, genomics and the metabolic syndrome: an integrated nutrition, agro-food, social and economic analysis). Nutrient intakes, BMI, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, and plasma glucose, insulin and blood lipid levels were assessed. Plasma fatty acid levels and urine were assessed using a metabolomic technique. The separation of three European geographical groups (NW, northwest; NE, northeast; SW, southwest) was identified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis models for urine (R 2 X: 0•33...
Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g) randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during...
Obesity is a highly heritable disease driven by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of loci contributing to obesity; however, a major limitation of these studies is the inability to assess environmental interactions common to obesity. Using a systems genetics approach, we measured obesity traits, global gene expression, and gut microbiota composition in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet of more than 100 inbred strains of mice. Here we show that HF/HS feeding promotes robust, strain-specific changes in obesity that is not accounted for by food intake and provide evidence for a genetically determined set-point for obesity. GWAS analysis identified 11 genome-wide significant loci associated with obesity traits, several of which...
Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum’s one gene—one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of health and disease processes requiring measurements of physiological processes, as well as environmental and social factors, which may alter the expression of genetic information. Analysis of physiological processes with omics technologies to assess systems’ responses has only become available over the past decade and remains costly. Studies of environmental and social conditions known to alter health are often not connected to biomedical research. While these facts are widely accepted, developing and conducting comprehensive research programs ...
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACC2) plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways. Disturbance of these pathways is associated with impaired insulin responsiveness and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-nutrient interactions may affect MetS risk. This study determined the relationship between ACC2 polymorphisms (rs2075263, rs2268387, rs2284685, rs2284689, rs2300453, rs3742023, rs3742026, rs4766587, and rs6606697) and MetS risk, and whether dietary fatty acids modulate this in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754). Minor A allele carriers of rs4766587 had increased MetS risk (OR 1.29 [CI 1.08, 1.58], P = 0.0064) compared with the GG homozygotes, which may in part be explained by their increased body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). MetS risk ...
Objective Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Genotype at key genes such as nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) may determine responsiveness to fatty acids. Gene–nutrient interactions may be important in modulating the development of CVD, particularly in high-risk individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Biomarkers of CVD risk, plasma fatty acid composition, and NOS3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype (rs11771443, rs1800783, rs1800779, rs1799983, rs3918227, and rs743507) were determined in 450 individuals with the MetS from the LIPGENE dietary intervention cohort. The effect of dietary fat modification for 12 weeks on metabolic indices of the MetS was determined to understand potential NOS3 gene–nutrient interactions. Results Sev...
Hypertension is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle and dietary changes may affect blood pressure (BP), but the knowledge of the effects of dietary fat modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an isoenergetic change in the quantity and quality of dietary fat on BP in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week European multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE), 486 subjects were assigned to one of the four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: two high-fat diets rich in saturated fat or monounsaturated fat and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets with or without 1·2 g/d of very long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation. There were no overall differences in systolic BP (SBP), ...
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