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What is American poetry? This paper is a history of the various answers poets have given to that question. They include Whitman's creation of a new form for poetry, one to replace those inherited from England. This new poetry was as radical politically as it was poetically —it was created to include those that other poetic forms had left out. Frost, on the other hand, adapted British verse forms to an American scene and American verse. The contradictory nature of America's response to Europe has shaped the divided tradition of American poetry.
When valuing health states (e.g. for use in the assessment of health technologies), health economists often ask respondents how many years of life in poor health they would be willing to trade-off in order to live in full health. Problems with preferences of this kind have led to calls for the use of more direct measures of the utility associated with experiencing a health state. The fact remains, however, that individuals are often willing to make large sacrifices in life expectancy to alleviate conditions for which there appears to be a considerable degree of hedonic adaptation. The purpose of this study is to investigate this important discrepancy in more detail. Data from 1173 internet and telephone surveys in the United States suggest that time trade-off responses are related to the frequency and intensity of negative thoughts abo...
This paper considers the question of what ought to be valued in the context of measuring the outcomes of healthcare interventions. The answer is discrete health states in the case of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model and an entire health profile in the case of the healthy-years equivalent (HYE) approach. How well the weighted average of values attached to the former approximates the overall value attached to the latter depends on the validity of the assumptions of the QALY model. The paper considers some of the empirical literature relating to them. One of the most important assumptions, which from the limited evidence available appears not to hold, is additive separability. However, it is argued that violation of this assumption does not in itself invalidate the QALY approach, since in some circumstances it might be more app...
OBJECTIVES: It has become increasingly common for preference-based measures of health-related quality of life to be used in the evaluation of different health-care interventions. For one such measure, The EuroQol, designed to be used for these purposes, it was necessary to derive a single index value for each of the 243 health states it generates. The problem was that it was virtually impossible to generate direct valuations for all of these states, and thus it was necessary to find a procedure that allows the valuations of all EuroQol states to be interpolated from direct valuations on a subset of these. METHODS: In a recent study, direct valuations were elicited for 42 EuroQol health states (using the time trade-off method) from a representative sample of the UK population. This article reports on the methodology that was adopted to ...
An important consideration when establishing priorities in healthcare is the likely effect that alternative allocations will have on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of the relevant population. This paper considers some of the important issues and controversies surrounding the valuation of HR-QOL. It considers the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding 3 crucial questions: * what is to be valued?; * how is it to be valued?; and * who is to value it? Many important yet unresolved issues emerge and directions for future research are suggested. It is argued that this research agenda should have the gathering and analysis of qualitative data at its forefront.
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