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Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, Latex, psfig
The properties of the Z resonance are measured from the analysis of 4.5 million Z decays into fermion pairs collected with the ALEPII detector at LEP. The data are consistent with lepton universality. The resonance parameters are measured to be M-Z = (91.1885 +/- 0.0031) GeV/c(2), Gamma(Z) = (2.4941 +/- 0.0043) GeV, sigma(had)(0) = (41.559 +/- 0.058) nb and, combining the three lepton flavours, R-l = 20.725 +/- 0.039. The corresponding number of light neutrino species is N-v = 2.983 +/- 0.013 and the strong coupling constant is alpha(s)(M- Z) = 0.114 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.002(QCD) + 0.005 log(10) [M-H/150 GeV/c(2)]. The lepton pair forward-backward asymmetry is measured to be A(FB)(0,l) = 0.0173 +/- 0.0016 from which the effective weak mixing angle is described: sin(2) theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23089 +/- 0.00089. The measurement of the leptonic w...
An experimental investigation of the structure of identified quark and gluon jets is presented. Observables related to both the global and internal structure of jets are measured; this allows for tests of QCD over a wide range of transverse momentum scales. The observables include distributions of jet- shape variables, the mean and standard deviation of the subjet multiplicity distribution and the fragmentation function for charged particles. The data are compared with predictions of perturbative QCD as well as QCD-based Monte Carlo models. In certain kinematic regions the measurements are sensitive mainly to perturbatively calculable effects, allowing for a test of QCD. The comparisons are also extended into regions where nonperturbative effects become large, and in this way the transition from hard to soft QCD is investigated. It is ...
Calibration of the relative response of the individual channels of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS detector was accomplished, before installation, with cosmic ray muons and test beams. One fourth of the calorimeter was exposed to a beam of high energy electrons and the relative calibration of the channels, the intercalibration, was found to be reproducible to a precision of about 0.3%. Additionally, data were collected with cosmic rays for the entire ECAL barrel during the commissioning phase. By comparing the intercalibration constants obtained with the electron beam data with those from the cosmic ray data, it is demonstrated that the latter provide an intercalibration precision of 1.5% over most of the barrel ECAL. The best intercalibration precision is expected to come from the analysis of events collected in situ...
Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.
Performance tests of some aspects of the CMS ECAL were carried out on modules of the "barrel" sub-system in 2002 and 2003. A brief test with high energy electron beams was made in late 2003 to validate prototypes of the new Very Front End electronics. The final versions of the monitoring and cooling systems, and of the high and low voltage regulation were used in these tests. The results are consistent with the performance targets including those for noise and overall energy resolution, required to fulfil the physics programme of CMS at the LHC.
The energy resolution of the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been studied using electrons of 20 to 250 GeV in a test beam. The incident electron's energy was reconstructed by summing the energy measured in arrays of 3x3 or 5x5 channels. There was no significant amount of correlated noise observed within these arrays. For electrons incident at the centre of the studied 3x3 arrays of crystals, the mean stochastic term was measured to be 2.8% and the mean constant term to be 0.3%. The amount of the incident electron's energy which is contained within the array depends on its position of incidence. The variation of the containment with position is corrected for using the distribution of the measured energy within the array. For uniform illumination of a crystal with 120 GeV electrons a resolution of 0.5% was achieved...
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