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The ATLAS detector has been built to study the reactions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). ATLAS includes a system of liquid argon calorimeters for energy measurements. The electronics for amplifying, shaping, sampling, pipelining, and digitizing the calorimeter signals is implemented on a set of front-end electronic boards. The front-end boards are installed in crates mounted between the calorimeters, where they will be subjected to significant levels of radiation during LHC operation. As a result, all components used on the front-end boards had to be subjected to an extensive set of radiation qualification tests. This paper describes radiationtolerant designs, radiation testing, and radiation qualification of the front-end readout system for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters.
A full azimuthal phi-wedge of the ATLAS liquid argon end-cap calorimeter has been exposed to beams of electrons, muons and pions in the energy range 6 GeV <= E <= 200 GeV at the CERN SPS. The angular region studied corresponds to the ATLAS impact position around the pseudorapidity interval 1.6 < |eta| < 1.8. The beam test set-up is described. A detailed study of the performance is given as well as the related intercalibration constants obtained. Following the ATLAS hadronic calibration proposal, a first study of the hadron calibration using a weighting ansatz is presented. The results are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo simulations, based on GEANT 3 and GEANT 4 models.
Comment: 66 pages, 60 Postscript figures, submitted to NIM A
The pseudorapidity region 2.5<η<4.0 in ATLAS is a particularly complex transition zone between the endcap and forward calorimeters. A set-up consisting of image resp. image of the full azimuthal acceptance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap and forward calorimeters has been exposed to beams of electrons, pions and muons in the energy range image at the CERN SPS. Data have been taken in the endcap and forward calorimeter regions as well as in the transition region. This beam test set-up corresponds very closely to the geometry and support structures in ATLAS. A detailed study of the performance in the endcap and forward calorimeter regions is described. The data are compared with MC simulations based on GEANT 4 models.
The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.
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