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Ship rat (Rattus rattus) density was assessed by snap-trapping during summer and autumn in eight indigenous forest fragments (mean 5 ha) in rural landscapes of Waikato, a lowland pastoral farming district of the North Island, New Zealand. Four of the eight were fenced and four grazed. In each set of four, half were connected with hedgerows, gullies or some other vegetative corridor to nearby forest and half were completely isolated. Summer rat density based on the number trapped in the first six nights was higher in fenced (mean 6.5 rats ha–1) than in grazed fragments (mean 0.5 rats ha–1; P = 0.02). Rats were eradicated (no rats caught and no rat footprints recorded for three consecutive nights) from all eight fragments in January–April 2008, but reinvaded within a month; time to eradication averaged 47 nights in fenced and 19 nights i...
Reinvasions provide prime examples of source-sink population dynamics, and are a major reason for failure of eradications of invasive rats from protected areas. Yet little is known about the origins and population structure of the replacement population compared with the original one. We eradicated eight populations of ship rats from separate podocarp- broadleaved forest fragments surrounded by open grassland (averaging 5.3 ha, scattered across 20,000 ha) in rural landscapes of Waikato, New Zealand, and monitored the- re-establishment of new populations. Rats were kill-trapped to extinction during January to April 2008, and then again after reinvasion in April–May (total n = 517). Rats carrying Rhodamine B dye (n = 94), available only in baits placed 1–2 months in advance in adjacent source areas located 170–380 m (average 228 m edge t...
Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Recent studies indicate that DTX-2 is about half as toxic and has about half the affinity for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as OA. NMR structural studies showed that DTX-1 possessed an equatorial 35-methyl group but that DTX-2 had an axial 35-methyl group. Molecular modeling studies indicated that an axial 35-methyl could exhibit unfavorable interactions in the PP2A binding site, and this has been proposed as the reason for the reduced toxicity of DTX-2. Statistical analyses of published data indicate that the affinity of PP2A for DTX-1 is 1.6-fold higher, and for DTX-2 is 2-fold lower, than for OA. We obtained X-ray crystal structures of DTX-1 and DTX-2 bound to PP2A. T...
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