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Synthesis is reported of regioisomeric ortho-[Mn(CO)4] derivatives of aryl ketones (2-chlorothioxanthen-9-one and 3???,4???-methylenedioxyacetophenone) and esters (isopropyl 3-methoxy- and 3-acetoxy-benzoate), as well as of the single ortho-[Mn(CO)4] products from methyl 4-methoxy- and 3,5-dimethoxy-benzoate. Factors influencing the preference for manganation at the crowded positions ortho to the C=O in meta-substituted aryl ketones and esters are considered. The frequency of the lowest energy metal carbonyl stretching mode is useful in the structural assignment of the regioisomers. Isopropyl 2-iodo-3-methoxy- and 2-iodo-3-acetoxy-benzoates are obtained by reaction of iodine chloride to replace the Mn(CO)4 group at the crowded 2-position of the corresponding orthomanganated 3-O-substituted benzoate esters. ortho-Iodoacetophenones were ...
The resorcylic acid lactones zearalenone (1), α-zearalenol (2), β-zearalenol (3), α-zearalanol (zeranol) (4), β-zearalanol (taleranol) (5), and zearalanone (6) were converted to their glucuronides on a preparative scale in good yields. Reactions were conducted with bovine uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) as catalyst and uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) as cofactor. The glucuronides were isolated by column chromatography and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Although the principal products were 4-O-glucuronides (i.e., linkage through a phenolic hydroxyl), significant quantities of the 6′-O-glucuronides (i.e., linkage through the aliphatic hydroxyl) of alcohols 2, 4, and 5 were also isolated. In the case of 3, the 2-O-glucuronide was isolated as the minor product. Overall isolated yield...
animals and people consuming seafood. Brevetoxin-B2 (5) is a toxic metabolite produced in shellfish exposed to algae that contain brevetoxin-B (1). S-Desoxybrevetoxin-B2 (4) has been proposed as a cometabolite produced during this transformation, and while LC-MS analyses suggest its presence in shellfish, it has not yet been isolated and characterized. Studies on these materials are severely constrained by the difficulty of obtaining and purifying them from natural sources. We have developed a convenient one-pot conversion of commercially available brevetoxin-B (1) into S-desoxybrevetoxin-B2 (4), and a simple method for converting 4 into brevetoxin-B2 (5). Full NMR and mass-spectral characterization of 4 and 5 confirmed their structures and showed that the ratio of diastereoisomers in the synthetic 4 and 5 was similar to that observed ...
Yessotoxins from a large-scale culture (226 L) of Protoceratium reticulatum strain CAWD129 were harvested by filtration followed by solid-phase extraction. The extract was purified by column chromatography over basic alumina and reverse-phase flash chromatography to afford pure yessotoxin (193 mg). Isolation of yessotoxin was greatly facilitated by selection of a strain which did not produce analogues that interfered with yessotoxin isolation. In addition to yessotoxin, numerous minor yessotoxins were detected by LC-MS in other fractions. From one of these, an early eluting minor analogue with the same molecular weight as yessotoxin and a similar mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern was isolated. This analogue was identified by NMR and mass spectrometry as a novel yessotoxin analogue containing a furan ring in the side chain. This ...
Background: Some apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) varieties have attractive striping patterns, a quality attribute that is important for determining apple fruit market acceptance. Most apple cultivars (e.g. ‘Royal Gala’) produce fruit with a defined fruit pigment pattern, but in the case of ‘Honeycrisp’ apple, trees can produce fruits of two different kinds: striped and blushed. The causes of this phenomenon are unknown. Results: Here we show that striped areas of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Royal Gala’ are due to sectorial increases in anthocyanin concentration. Transcript levels of the major biosynthetic genes and MYB10, a transcription factor that upregulates apple anthocyanin production, correlated with increased anthocyanin concentration in stripes. However, nucleotide changes in the promoter and coding sequence of MYB10 do not correlate wi...
Two novel pectenotoxins (PTXs), PTX-13 and -14, were isolated from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compounds were identified as oxidized analogues of PTX-2 by NMR spectroscopic and LC-MS studies. PTX-13 (32R-hydroxyPTX-2) corresponds to the unidentified analogue PTX-11x reported by [Suzuki et al., 2003. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of spiroketal stereoisomers of pectenotoxins and the analysis of novel pectenotoxin isomers in the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta from New Zealand. J. Chromatogr. A 992, 141–150]. PTX-13 underwent slow deuteration at the 13β-position during NMR analysis. PTX-14 corresponds to the 32,36-dehydration product of PTX-13, and may be an artifact.
A cis-isomer of a C8-diol ester of okadaic acid (1) was isolated during large-scale purification of pectenotoxins (PTXs) from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compound was identified by NMR spectroscopic and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies, and is the first reported cis-isomer of an okadaic acid C₈-diol-ester identified in Dinophysis. The more abundant trans-C₈-diol ester of okadaic acid (2) isolated from the same Dinophysis extract was rapidly hydrolyzed to okadaic acid in vitro by the supernatant from green-lipped mussel hepatopancreas.
We have identified a range of food phytochemicals that inhibit Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK). A mutated and dysregulated form of JAK2, a tyrosine kinase, is associated with several diseases including Crohn's disease. Using an in vitro, time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FRET) assay, we tested 49 different types of food extracts, plus 10 concentrated fractions of increasing hydrophobicity from each extract, to find foods containing JAK2 inhibitors. The food extracts tested included grains, meat, fish, shellfish, dairy products, herbs, mushrooms, hops, fruits and vegetables. Several fruits were potent inhibitors of JAK2: blackberry, boysenberry, feijoa, pomegranate, rosehip and strawberry, which all contain ellagitannins, known inhibitors of kinases. These fruits are in the Rosales and Myrtales plant o...
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