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Lebanon has a thriving and diverse reproductive medical sector: procedures are practised that have aroused much ethical controversy, such as those using donor eggs and sperm. Sunni ulama have reached a broad consensus on these matters, and do not allow donor procedures. However, Shiite opinion remains diverse: some Shiite authorities allow their followers these controversial treatments, but have evolved concomitant rulings that entail surprising new patterns of kinship relations.
This paper proposes that historiographic methods should be applied during art technological source research. Sources cannot always be used uncritically as being simply reliable records of contemporary workshop practice. The accuracy, date and origin of the technical information embedded within sources can only be evaluated by questioning their authorship and their intended audience, and by investigation of their transmission. When using sources to illuminate the study of artefacts, more effort should be made to seek out and interpret a wider variety of sources, and to find those that are closer in time and place to the artefacts under consideration.
In the 19th century, English commercial artists’ material suppliers and manufacturers (‘colourmen’) kept excellent manuscript records of their industrial processes, and of their suppliers and customers. These archives contain recipes for manufacture (together with dated day-to-day variations in processes), notes on sourcing and refining raw materials, and detailed information on which artist bought which materials on which day. The resulting archives from just two colourmen (Roberson and Winsor & Newton) run to hundreds of volumes – an unmanageable resource. Selective indexing in database form makes this material accessible. This paper introduces the range of archive material available, with examples, outlining different indexing and database strategies. It is concluded that digital images of each page of an archive, coupled with a da...
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