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Growth monitoring in infancy and childhood has been part of preventive child health programs for more than a century in both developed and underdeveloped countries. It is a popular tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. An important goal of growth monitoring is to identify, at an early stage, genetic disorders, diseases or other conditions that manifest themselves through an abnormal growth. Despite the longstanding and wide acceptance of growth monitoring, not much was known about the diagnostic performance of growth monitoring. This thesis presents referral criteria for length (height), weight and body mass index (BMI) that are able to detect, at an early stage, many children with growth-related conditions at the account of only a limited number of children that do not have a condition. For this purpose, we stud...
DJ Hand (2004). Measurement Theory and Practice: The world through quantification. Hoofdstuk 1 behandelt de vraag waarom we meten, en hoofdstuk 2 neemt de vraag 'Wat is meten?' als vertrekpunt. Hand introduceert een onderscheid tussen 'representational measurement' en 'pragmatic measurement'.
The standard deviation score (SDS) is a powerful tool for screening for growth-related problems. However, referral rules of the type ‘if SDS(Y)
Vrijwel iedere Nederlandse zuigeling bezoekt het consultatiebureau (CB). Het CB heeft tot taak de groei en ontwikkeling van het kind te volgen, en waar nodig door te verwijzen naar de huisarts. De verpleegkundige van het CB meet regelmatig de lengte, het gewicht en de hoofdomtrek van het kind, en tekent vervolgens de meetwaarden in op het groeidiagram. Mocht de groei van het kind afwijken van hetgeen normaal is (te kort, te lang, te licht, te zwaar), dan vindt nader onderzoek plaats naar de mogelijke oorzaken. In Nederland worden jaarlijks ongeveer 200.000 kinderen geboren. Het groeidiagram is daarmee de meest gebruikte grafiek van Nederland. Figuur 1 is het groeidiagram voor jongetjes tot een leeftijd van 15 maanden. Soortgelijke diagrammen zijn beschikbaar voor jongens/meisjes, andere leeftijden, etnische groepen, en andere uitkomste...
The goal ofmultiple imputation is to provide valid inferences for statistical estimates from incomplete data. To achieve that goal, imputed values should preserve the structure in the data, as well as the uncertainty about this structure, and include any knowledge about the process that generated the missing data. Two approaches for imputing multivariate data exist: joint modeling (JM) and fully conditional specification (FCS). JM is based on parametric statistical theory, and leads to imputation procedures whose statistical properties are known.JMis theoretically sound, but the joint model may lack flexibility needed to represent typical data features, potentially leading to bias. FCS is a semi-parametric and flexible alternative that specifies the multivariate model by a series of conditional models, one for each incomplete variable....
A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The traditional height-for-age (HfA) diagram shows how height varies both within and across age. Figure 11.1 is the official Dutch diagram of height and weight for Dutch boys aged 1–21 years.2,3 In the HfA diagram, the vertical distance of shaded area in the graph delineates the variation in heights between 2 and 2 standard deviations (SD). The interval between the 2 and 2 SD curves contains about 95.4 percent of all individuals of the same age in the reference sample. The graph at the top displays the variation of weight as a function of height. For...
A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The traditional height-for-age (HfA) diagram shows how height varies both within and across age. Figure 11.1 is the official Dutch diagram of height and weight for Dutch boys aged 1–21 years.2,3 In the HfA diagram, the vertical distance of shaded area in the graph delineates the variation in heights between 2 and 2 standard deviations (SD). The interval between the 2 and 2 SD curves contains about 95.4 percent of all individuals of the same age in the reference sample. The graph at the top displays the variation of weight as a function of height. For...
Exclusively breastfed (EBF) infants have higher weight gain during the first 2 months, and lower thereafter. The explanation for this phenomenon is not clear. Longitudinal data from the Social Medical Survey of Children Attending Child Health Clinics study with a cohort of 2,151 Dutch children were analyzed according to a pattern mixture model. It appears that higher than average growth of EBF infants during the first 2 months is primarily attributable to selective dropout. Furthermore, between months 2 and 6, light nonEBF infants gain more weight than light EBF infants. Both factors aid in explaining differences in growth between EBF and nonEBF infants. The WHO Child Growth Standards for weight-for-age have been calculated from a subgroup of 903 infants (out of 1,743) that complied with strict feeding criteria. If similar dropout mech...
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