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After an historical introduction showing how our understanding of neutrino properties has improved over time, we focus on the phenomenon of flavor oscillations. The formalism is detailed, first for two neutrino families, then for three; matter effects are explained. We finally give an overview of the present experimental status on oscillations, and indicate the future prospects.
We show that the unified method recently proposed by Feldman and Cousins to put confidence intervals on bounded parameters cannot avoid the possibility of getting null results. A modified bayesian approach is also proposed (although not advocated) which ensures no null results and proper coverage.
A water Cherenkov detector project, of megaton scale, to be installed in the Frejus underground site and dedicated to nucleon decay, neutrinos from supernovae, solar and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as neutrinos from a super-beam and/or a beta-beam coming from CERN, is presented and compared with competitor projects in Japan and in the USA. The performances of the European project are discussed, including the possibility to measure the mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ and the CP-violating phase $\delta$.
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