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Human rights are increasingly recognised as part of international law and politics, but they at times conflict with principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention. This thesis examines the conflict that exists between the order provided by states and various aspirations for justice as expressed in cases of international judicial interventions. It argues that a shift has taken place in international relations from a predominantly state-centric view of international law towards an increased recognition of principles of individual justice. The overarching theoretical and analytical framework of this thesis is based on the English School of International Relations and its pluralist and solidarist approaches to the conflict between order and justice. Pluralism emphasises order over justice whereas solidarism looks at ways of overcomin...
Will future historians view the 2004-7 enlargements as a heroic step towards the unification of Europe, or the point at which the European Union’s (EU) glory days came to an end? Much will depend on how the European Commission, a uniquely ‘politicized bureaucracy’ under constant pressure both to enforce common rules and to deviate from them, copes with enlargement. This paper reviews early evidence of enlargement’s impact on the Commission. Its central argument is that enlargement has not fundamentally altered the role of the Commission, but it has reinforced the impact of several other changes that are ‘secular’ ones not exclusively or even specifically linked to enlargement. They include: the emergence of a younger and more flexible Commission, one that is more ‘Presidential’, and one which can no longer rely as much on its tradition...
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