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Yessotoxins from a large-scale culture (226 L) of Protoceratium reticulatum strain CAWD129 were harvested by filtration followed by solid-phase extraction. The extract was purified by column chromatography over basic alumina and reverse-phase flash chromatography to afford pure yessotoxin (193 mg). Isolation of yessotoxin was greatly facilitated by selection of a strain which did not produce analogues that interfered with yessotoxin isolation. In addition to yessotoxin, numerous minor yessotoxins were detected by LC-MS in other fractions. From one of these, an early eluting minor analogue with the same molecular weight as yessotoxin and a similar mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern was isolated. This analogue was identified by NMR and mass spectrometry as a novel yessotoxin analogue containing a furan ring in the side chain. This ...
Two novel pectenotoxins (PTXs), PTX-13 and -14, were isolated from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compounds were identified as oxidized analogues of PTX-2 by NMR spectroscopic and LC-MS studies. PTX-13 (32R-hydroxyPTX-2) corresponds to the unidentified analogue PTX-11x reported by [Suzuki et al., 2003. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of spiroketal stereoisomers of pectenotoxins and the analysis of novel pectenotoxin isomers in the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta from New Zealand. J. Chromatogr. A 992, 141–150]. PTX-13 underwent slow deuteration at the 13β-position during NMR analysis. PTX-14 corresponds to the 32,36-dehydration product of PTX-13, and may be an artifact.
A cis-isomer of a C8-diol ester of okadaic acid (1) was isolated during large-scale purification of pectenotoxins (PTXs) from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compound was identified by NMR spectroscopic and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies, and is the first reported cis-isomer of an okadaic acid C₈-diol-ester identified in Dinophysis. The more abundant trans-C₈-diol ester of okadaic acid (2) isolated from the same Dinophysis extract was rapidly hydrolyzed to okadaic acid in vitro by the supernatant from green-lipped mussel hepatopancreas.
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