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We report on shot noise measurements in carbon nanotube based Fabry-Perot electronic interferometers. As a consequence of quantum interferences, the noise power spectral density oscillates as a function of the voltage applied to the gate electrode. The quantum shot noise theory accounts for the data quantitatively. It allows to confirm the existence of two nearly degenerate orbitals. At resonance, the transmission of the nanotube approaches unity, and the nanotube becomes noiseless, as observed in quantum point contacts. In this weak backscattering regime, the dependence of the noise on the backscattering current is found weaker than expected, pointing either to electron-electron interactions or to weak decoherence.
In analogy with quantum optics, short time correlations of the current fluctuations are used to characterize an on-demand electron source consisting of a quantum dot connected to a conductor via a tunable tunnel barrier. We observe a new fundamental noise for electrons associated with the quantum fluctuations of the electron emission time, which we call quantum jitter. In optimum operating conditions of the source, the noise reduces to the quantum jitter limit, which demonstrates single particle emission. Combined with the coherent manipulations of single electrons in a quantum conductor, this electron quantum optics experiment opens the way to explore new problems including quantum statistics and interactions at the single electron level.
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