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Comment: LaTex, 28 pages. New revised version with a few new comments, further references provided and typos corrected, reference corrected
The wear of the piston ring-cylinder wall contact area in fired engines has not been satisfactorily simulated in bench testers so far. This paper reports the development of a successful test device in which the same progression of surface change occurs as in fired engines. These changes were observed by microscopy, by hardness indentations and by the use of the stylus roughness tracer. The test device uses ring and cylinder segments and it oscillates at 350 cycles min-1 over a stroke of 19 mm. It is apparently not necessary to duplicate the temperature, atmosphere, fluid film thickness and other obvious conditions in an engine to achieve simulation. At least, the materials in the engine were not affected by the conditions in the engine that were not duplicated in the laboratory tester.The purpose in developing the tester was to study t...
Discusses the results of a study of the hibernation of the corn earworm in Chatham County, Georgia from 1930 to 1933. The study was conducted in an effort to understand seasonal occurences of earworm infestation.
RNA-dependent protein kinase is a M(r) 68,000 protein in human cells (p68 kinase) or a M(r) 65,000 protein in murine cells (p65 kinase). p65/p68 is a serine/threonine kinase induced by interferon treatment and generally activated by double-stranded RNAs. Once activated, the known function of this kinase is inhibition of protein synthesis through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Here we have investigated the potential for tumorigenicity in mice of murine NIH 3T3 clones expressing human p68 kinase, either the wild-type or a mutant inactive kinase with a single amino acid substitution in the invariant lysine-296 in the catalytic domain II. Expression of the mutant p68 kinase was correlated with a malignant transformation phenotype, giving rise to the production of large tumors of at least 1 cm in diameter within 7-12...
Cells use the interferon-induced, double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR as a defense against virus infections. Upon activation, PKR phosphorylates and thereby inactivates the protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2, resulting in the cessation of protein synthesis. Viruses have evolved various strategies to counteract this cellular defense. In this paper, we show that simian virus 40 (SV40) large-T antigen can antagonize the translational inhibitory effect resulting from the activation of PKR in virus-infected cells. Unlike the situation with other virus-host cell interactions, SV40 large-T antigen does not block the activation of PKR, suggesting that SV40 counteracts the cellular antiviral response mediated by PKR at a step downstream of PKR activation. Mutational analysis of large-T antigen indicates that a domain located...
This paper will propose one vision for an interstellar program. It will include a discussion of mission concepts as well as technological requirements for accomplishing those missions.
The interferon-induced RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is considered to play an important role in the cellular defense against viral infection and, in addition, has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene because of its growth-suppressive properties. Activation of PKR by double-stranded RNAs leads to the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) and a resultant block to protein synthesis initiation. To avoid the consequences of kinase activation, many viruses have developed strategies to down-regulate PKR. Recently, we reported on the purification and characterization of a cellular inhibitor of PKR (referred to as p58), which is activated during influenza virus infection. Subsequent cloning and sequencing has revealed that p58 is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) family of...
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