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Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures
We estimated the current cost of deep brain stimulation surgery targeted on the subthalamic nucleus. The method used was a cost analysis using typical resource use patterns and unit costs from a leading surgical centre, detailed equipment costs from the manufacturer, and sensitivity analysis. Resource use was based on patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. The main outcome measure was the likely total health service costs per patient, including preoperative assessment, surgery, and postoperative management over a 5-year period. The preoperative assessment, surgery, and discounted follow-up costs associated with subthalamic nucleus surgery were estimated at approximately
The penetration level of renewable based distributed generation (DG) has increased rapidly in recent years. Grid standards demand small DG units to operate with constant power factor control mode and large DG units with voltage control mode. As a result, small DG units are exposed to the problem of slow voltage recovery due to contingencies like fault. This paper proposes a new sensitivity index based methodology for placement of shunt reactive power compensators to support voltage at load bus and generator bus under steady state and transient conditions. Two different test systems with diverse network and load configurations have been used to test and verify the proposed methodology.
Although metastases are common in patients with renal cell carcinoma (rcc), it is extremely rare for patients to present with metastatic rcc (mrcc) without evidence of a primary mass in the kidney. Two cases of mrcc with no detectable primary renal mass are reported here. Both patients had bilateral native kidneys in situ and no significant prior urologic history. The first patient presented with a hip fracture and was found to have multiple radiologic bony and lung metastases. Biopsy of a mass involving the pubic bone demonstrated clear cell mrcc. Multiple scans by computed tomography (ct) and confirmatory imaging by magnetic resonance demonstrated no renal mass. This first patient had disease stabilization for 18 months on sunitinib and was still alive at last follow-up. The second patient was diagnosed with clear-cell mrcc after thi...
Wide-scale penetration of distributed-generation (DG) units into a weakly meshed distribution system is one of the major concerns for power system engineers in recent years. As grid standards limit voltage control operation of small DG units, a lack of sufficient reactive power support brings the problem of slow voltage recovery and this leads to the usage of expensive flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) devices, such as a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). In this paper, a systematic methodology has been developed for fast voltage recovery at the DG bus. This methodology reduces the number as well as the rating of STATCOMs through the tuning of control parameters. The STATCOM rating at selected locations has been tested and verified to be adequate at various dispatch levels of DG units. Additional benefits of STATCOM ...
Report of the Higgs working group for the Workshop "Physics at TeV Colliders", Les Houches, France 8-18 June 1999. It contains 6 separate sections: 1. Measuring Higgs boson couplings at the LHC. 2. Higgs boson production at hadron colliders at NLO. 3. Signatures of Heavy Charged Higgs Bosons at the LHC. 4. Light stop effects and Higgs boson searches at the LHC. 5. Double Higgs production at TeV Colliders in the MSSM. 6. Programs and Tools for Higgs Bosons.
This study was intended to investigate the neural signals related to oculomotor and visual activity during horizontal saccades in humans and to explore the potential of using such signals as a functional marker for localizing the periventricular and periaqueductal gray. We recorded the local field potentials (LFPs) via implanted electrodes in the rostrolateral part of the periventricular and periaqueductal gray in four patients (six electrodes) who underwent deep brain stimulation for treatment of neuropathic pain. The functional composition of the saccade-related LFPs under different visual conditions was characterized using time-frequency analysis, and it was correlated with the anatomic placement of the electrodes on the postoperative magnetic resonance images. The magnitude of oculomotor signals varied predictably with the proximit...
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