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La morte endouterina del feto, nei Paesi industrializzati, si verifica circa nel 6-7‰delle gravidanze. Per molto tempo è stata considerata una problematica marginale e, purtroppo, ancora oggi è caratterizzata dalla mancanza di chiarezza sia nella sua stessa definizione temporale sia nella valutazione delle sue cause. Per quanto riguarda le definizioni, non è riconosciuto in modo univoco il confine che separa l'aborto tardivo dalla morte endouterina; inoltre, nelle varie classificazioni, non è uniforme la considerazione delle sole morti in utero rispetto alla morti perinatali (avvenute in utero e/o entro la prima settimana di vita). Per quanto riguarda invece le cause, può risultare difficile discriminare i fattori di rischio (materni, placentari o fetali) dalla vera causa responsabile dell'evento infausto. L'apporto anatomo-patologico ...
Objectives: To highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)patterns of focal cortical gyration anomalies, as they appear at a very early stage of the sulcation process. Methods: We reviewed 950 fetal MRI studies performed at our institution between 2000 and 2006. The cases showing focal anomalies of the cortical rim before the 25th week of gestation were selected and classified according to the type of cortical ribbon distortion. Results: Among nine selected cases, we identified three basic patterns of cortical rim anomaly: ‘wart-like’, ‘saw-tooth’ and major aberrant invaginating sulci. All anomalies were already detectable when the brain was still smooth (‘physiological lyssencephaly’). The ‘wart-like’ and ‘saw-tooth’ patterns were confirmed to be focal polymicrogyria at follow-up. In one ‘wart-like’ case and in aberrant sulci cases...
OBJECTIVE Congenital optic nerve head coloboma represents an important cause of childhood visual impairment and blindness; it can be isolated or, more often, it can be associated with several syndromes. Ultrasound has limitations in depicting the posterior aspect of the fetal eye globe, so prenatal information about ocular coloboma are very scarce. The purpose of this paper was to report prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of optic nerve head coloboma. METHODS: MR imaging at 1.5 Tesla was based on multiplanar single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted 3-4 mm thick contiguous sections. RESULTS: Three fetal cases with optic nerve head coloboma and one with microphthalmos and colobomatous cyst are reported. Coloboma appeared as a focal bulging of ocular globe profile at the insertion of optic nerve. CONCLUSION: Prenatal MR imagi...
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