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A key step in gibberellin biosynthesis is the conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaurenoic acid, mediated by the enzyme kaurenoic acid hydroxylase. A cell-free system obtained from Gibberella fujikuroi (Saw.) Wr. was used to characterize kaurenoic acid hydroxylase activity. Microsomal preparations from disrupted fungal cells, in the presence of O2 and NADPH, converted [17-14C]ent-kaurenoic acid to oxidation products that were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaurenoic acid and gibberellin A14 by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Flavin adenine dinucleotide and the chloride salts of several monovalent cations stimulated the conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to these products, whereas CO and a number of known inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent...
Understanding latitudinal adaptation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus× giganteus J. M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize) to the southern Great Plains is key to maximizing productivity by matching each grass variety to its optimal production environment. The objectives of this study were: (1) to quantify latitudinal variation in production of representative upland switchgrass ecotypes (Blackwell, Cave-in-Rock, and Shawnee), lowland switchgrass ecotypes (Alamo, Kanlow), and Miscanthus in the southern half of the US Great Plains and (2) to investigate the environmental factors affecting yield variation. Leaf area and yield were measured on plots at 10 locations in Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. More cold winter days led to decreased subsequent Alamo switchgrass yields and increased subsequent upl...
We report updated branching fraction measurements of the color-suppressed decays B0bar to D0 pi0, D*0 pi0, D0 eta, D*0 eta, D0 omega, D*0 omega, D0 eta_prime, and D*0 eta_prime. We measure the branching fractions (*10^-4): BF(B0bar to D0 pi0) = 2.69 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.13, BF(B0bar to D*0 pi0) = 3.05 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.28, BF(B0bar to D0 eta) = 2.53 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.11, BF(B0bar to D*0 eta) = 2.69 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.23, BF(B0bar to D0 omega) = 2.57 +/- 0.11 +/- 0.14, BF(B0bar to D*0 omega) = 4.55 +/- 0.24 +/- 0.39, BF(B0bar to D0 eta_prime) = 1.48 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.07,and BF(B0bar to D*0 eta_prime) = 1.49 +/- 0.22 +/- 0.15. We also present the first measurement of the longitudinal polarization fraction of the decay channel D*0 omega, f_L = (66.5+/- 4.7+/- 1.5) %. In the above, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The result...
We report a search for CP violation in the decay \tau- -> \pi - \K^0_S (>= 0 \pi 0) \nu_\tau\ using a dataset of 437 million \tau\ lepton pairs, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 476 fb^{-1}, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e+e- storage rings. The CP-violating decay-rate asymmetry is determined to be (-0.45 +/- 0.24 +/- 0.11)%, approximately three standard deviations from the Standard Model prediction of (0.33 +/- 0.01)%.
We report a measurement of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction of the B_s meson using data collected with the BaBar detector in the center-of-mass (CM) energy region above the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We use the inclusive yield of phi mesons and the phi yield in association with a high-momentum lepton to perform a simultaneous measurement of the semileptonic branching fraction and the production rate of B_s mesons relative to all B mesons as a function of CM energy. The inclusive semileptonic branching fraction of the B_s meson is determined to be B(B_s to l nu X)=9.5 (+2.5/-2.0)(stat)(+1.1/-1.9)(syst)%, where l indicates the average of e and mu.
We search for hadronic decays of a light Higgs boson (A0) produced in radiative decays of an Upsilon(2S) or Upsilon(3S) meson, Upsilon --> gamma A0. The data have been recorded by the BABAR experiment at the Upsilon(3S) and Upsilon(2S) center of mass energies, and include (121.3 \pm 1.2) x 10^6 Upsilon(3S) and (98.3 \pm 0.9) x 10^6 Upsilon(2S) mesons. No significant signal is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product branching fractions B(Upsilon(nS)-->gamma A0) x B(A0-->hadrons) (n=2 or 3) that range from 1 x 10^{-6} for an A0 mass of 0.3 GeV/c^2 to 8 x 10^{-5} at 7 GeV/c^2.
We present searches for rare or forbidden charm decays of the form $X_c^+\to h^\pm\ell^\mp\ell^{(\prime)+}$, where $X_c^+$ is a charm hadron ($D^+$, $D^+_s$, or $\Lambda_c^+$), $h^\pm$ is a pion, kaon, or proton, and $\ell^{(\prime)\pm}$ is an electron or muon. The analysis is based on $384 fb^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ annihilation data collected at or close to the $\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the BaBar detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. No significant signal is observed for any of the 35 decay modes that are investigated. We establish 90% confidence-level upper limits on the branching fractions between $1 \times 10^{-6}$ and $44 \times 10^{-6}$ depending on the channel. In most cases, these results represent either the first limits or significant improvements on existing limits for the decay modes studied.
Using a sample of 122 million Upsilon(3S) events recorded with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at SLAC, we search for the h_b(1P) spin-singlet partner of the P-wave chi_b(1P) states in the sequential decay Upsilon(3S) --> pi0 h_b(1P), h_b(1P) --> gamma eta_b(1S). We observe an excess of events above background in the distribution of the recoil mass against the pi0 at mass 9902 +/- 4 (stat.) +/- 1 (syst.) MeV/c^2. The width of the observed signal is consistent with experimental resolution, and its significance is 3.0 sigma, including systematic uncertainties. We obtain the value (3.7 +/- 1.1 (stat.) +/- 0.7 (syst.))x 10^{-4} for the product branching fraction BF(Upsilon(3S) --> pi0 h_b) x BF(h_b --> gamma eta_b).
We report the observation of the baryonic B decay B0bar --> Lambda_c^+ anti-Lambda K- with a significance larger than 7 standard deviations based on 471x10^6$ BBbar pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at SLAC. We measure the branching fraction for the decay B0bar --> Lambda_c^+ anti-Lambda K- to be (3.8 \pm 0.8_{stat} \pm 0.2_{sys} \pm 1.0_{Lambda_c^+})x10^{-5}. The uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the uncertainty in the Lambda_c^+ branching fraction. We find that the Lambda_c^+ K^- invariant mass distribution shows an enhancement above 3.5 GeV/c^2.
We use 111+/-1 million Upsilon(3S) and 89+/-1 million Upsilon(2S) events recorded by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions between bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e+e- pairs by the detector material. We observe Upsilon(3S) -> gamma chi_b0,2(1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for chi_b1,2(1P,2P) -> gamma Upsilon(1S) and chi_b1,2(2P) -> gamma Upsilon(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the eta_b(1S) and eta_b(2S) states.
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