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[[abstract]]Project I: In order to increase the agricultural competitiveness in Taiwan, it is important to have a good, practical and useful Operational Process and waste management system. So, through this project, we want to know the following things: 1. Who are the key players in implementing a good operational process and managing waste? 2. What the wholesale market did during the production & marketing process in the vegetable Supply Chain in Germany? 3. How to decrease waste or increase waste value? 4. Compare the operational process and waste management between Taiwan and Germany. Project II: It is widely believed that the crop system and farm land use pattern will be adversely affected by our accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Traditional crops such as rice, maize, soybean, corn and sugar cane would become e...
[[abstract]]摘要 近年來,堆肥法廣為利用在處理廚餘廢棄物。然而,在堆肥過程中翻動含有許多微生物的堆肥物,會使生物氣膠散佈在空氣中。若吸入生物氣膠微粒,呼吸道表皮細胞會因生物氣膠微粒所含的內毒素與黴菌毒素造成發炎反應。由於生物氣膠微粒中的孢子可深入呼吸道末稍,因此本研究之目的在於定量廚餘堆肥廠生物氣膠中微生物,以及其對人類呼吸道表皮細胞重塑基因(remodeling genes)之影響。 本研究收集廚餘堆肥廠三月至八月的生物氣膠微粒,分別以培養法和即時定量聚合?連鎖反應(real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; real-time PCR)對生物氣膠中Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus)進行定性與定量分析。另一方面,將人類呼吸道上表皮NCI-H292細胞暴露生物氣膠樣本或A. fumigatus標準菌株,以酵素連結免疫吸附分析法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA)量測發炎前趨激素介白素-6 (interleukin-6; IL-6)分泌量,並以real-time PCR分析重塑基因表現。 研究結果顯示,五月至六月之間堆肥廠中生物氣膠總菌落數最高(4.9104 CFU/m3),其中嗜中溫細菌與麴菌的數量最多,A. fumigatus孢子數也達到最高。生物氣膠樣本誘發NCI-H292細胞分泌IL-6同樣在五月至六月最高(平均值標準差:987129.4 pg/ml),並且與麴菌和嗜中溫細菌之數量呈正相關。在重塑基因表現方面,NCI-H292細胞暴露生物氣膠樣本後造成transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1、epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)與cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21WAF1/CIP1)表...
[[abstract]]針對由N 個單體所組成的直線狀聚電解質而言,發生在其鏈上的反離子凝聚現象,可以藉由蒙地卡羅模擬其離子化程度( α)來進行研究。而離子化程度可由為觀測到的反離子濃度與其本質上應有的反離子濃度的比值( i o c c = α )來定義之。而聚電解質系統中的觀測到的反離子濃度o c ,相當於擁有相同反離子的化學勢能的電解質溶液濃度,而此濃度可藉由實驗中直接測得,例如使用離子選擇性電極。如果將聚電解質固定在球形的Wigner-Seitz cell 中,則我們可以計算出單體與反離子沿著半徑方向的濃度分佈,而且可以利用Widom’s 提出的方法來計算出反離子沿著半徑方向的化學勢能分佈。而反離子的凝聚現象的主要驅動機制為靜電內能,而此靜電內能明顯的是由介電常數所造成的,就如同反離子的亂度會影響到離子化的程度。而我們模擬呈現出的結果為:在固定的線電荷密度情況下,離子化的程度會隨著聚電解質的鏈長、聚電解質鍵結的柔軟度、聚電解質的濃度與添加的單價鹽類離子濃度減少而增加。而上述結果都在性質上與 Muthukumar 在近期利用自我一致性原理所發表的文獻結果相符。 The phenomenon of counterion condensation around a linear polyelectrolyte chain with N monomers is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of the degree of ionization α. It is define as the ratio of observed to intrinsic counterion concentration, α=co/ci. The observed counterion concentration co in the polyelectrolyte system corresponds to an elec...
[[abstract]]本實驗採用熱蒸鍍法製備兩組銅奈米顆粒後至於空氣中分別得到在外圍包覆不同氧化厚度的銅氧核殼奈米粒子,經由X光繞射圖分析我們得到其中四組銅與氧化亞銅的比例為1:1、3:1、3:2、4:21,最後經由X光繞射寬的擬合以及AFM粒徑影像的比對我們定義出樣品的粒徑為7.2、8.8、9、12.4 nm。 經由磁化強度與磁化率的測量得知系統中具有兩個磁分量因此使用兩個朗之萬函數加一線性抗磁項來描述此其磁性,我們推測兩個磁分量分別為銅以及氧化亞銅自旋極化,銅的自旋極化飽和磁化強度隨溫度無明顯變化趨勢,而由氧化亞銅自旋極化的飽和磁化強會隨溫度升高而遞減,兩者的磁矩數皆隨溫度升高而增加,此外比較各組樣品由銅所產生的磁性以及抗磁性質,發現其強度會隨銅粒徑的減少而增強。 Five core shell Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were fabricated by thermal evaporation method. The outer Cu2O shell was formed by expose the Cu nanoparticle to the air . X-ray difference studies show that the mole ratio of Cu/Cu2O in the four samples are 1:1, 3:1, 3:2, 4:21. The mean particle diameters were determinded from the X-ray peak profiles and the AFM images . The mean diameters are 7.2, 8.8, 9, 12.4 nm. Magnetization and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed to study the magnetic proper...
[[abstract]]在本論文研究中,我們提出了一個可操作在830nm波段的矽-矽鍺垂直入射的雪崩光二極體。我們的元件可以藉由操作在崩潰區而最小化因N型基板所產生的擴散電流而造成的低頻roll-off的問題,同時也可以藉由衝擊離子的效應而產生高輸出頻寬。所以我們的元件可以在不使用複雜的SOI技術之下,而達到高輸出頻寬(15.3GHz)以及極高的增益頻寬積(428GHz)。 In this thesis, we demonstrate a high-performance Si–SiGe-based vertical-illuminated avalanche photodiode (APD) operating in the 830-nm wavelength regime. Under avalanche operation, the low-frequency roll-off caused by the slow diffusion current from the n+ silicon substrate can also be minimized. Also, our device can achieved high bandwidth due to impact-ionization-induced resonant effect. So, a wide bandwidth (15.3 GHz) and an extremely high gain-bandwidth (428 GHz) can be achieved simultaneously in our device without using complex silicon-on-insulator or germanium-on-insulator substrates.
[[tableofcontents]]第一章 緒論………………………………………………… 1 第二章 中日對於九一八事變的反應 第一節 九一八事變之爆發 …………………………………… 7 第二節 日本政府的反應 ……………………………………… 14 第三節 關東軍的謀略與中國之應變 ………………………… 22 第三章 若槻內閣時期的日本外交 第一節 1931年9月中日在國聯的首度交鋒 ………………… 29 第二節 1931年10月間國際聯盟的調停進展………………… 38 第三節 1931年底的國聯風雲 ………………………………… 47 第四章 犬養內閣時期的日本外交 第一節 國際聯盟對一二八事變之調處經緯 ………………… 57 第二節 百花齊放的國聯特別大會 …………………………… 68 第五章 齋藤內閣時期的日本外交 第一節 李頓報告書之問世 …………………………………… 80 第二節 1932年底的國聯特別大會 ……………………………89 第三節 1933年國聯的最終努力 ………………………………95 第六章 結語 …………………………………………………108 徵引書目 ………………………………………………………113
[[abstract]]Abstract The diabetes has already become the seventh cause of death in the world with 7.3% of annual growth. It is estimated that the patients will reach 380 million by 2025. The market value of the global blood glucose monitoring is also increasing continuously with 11.2% of annual growth, and it is estimated that the market value will exceed 9,700 million in 2009. The idea of preventive medicine has already been accepted gradually because of the growth of ageing population, and the business value comes from the blood glucose detection is huge. But about 96% of the detection market of the world at present is controlled by the top five companies: Roche, J&J, Abbott, Bayer and Kyoto Daiichi. The geographical density of Taiwan’s blood glucose monitoring (BGM) manufacturers is the world No. one in 2007. Taiwan has become one ...
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