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The C825T polymorphism of the gene encoding the G-protein beta(3) subunit (GNB3) is associated with increased intracellular signal transduction and arterial hypertension. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of this polymorphism on early adaptive processes of the left ventricle and renal hemodynamic changes in young normotensive to mildly hypertensive subjects. Ninety-five white male students with normal or mildly elevated blood pressure were genotyped for the GNB3 C825T polymorphism. In each participant, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular structure and function (2D-guided M-mode echocardiography), renal plasma flow (para-aminohippurate clearance), glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance), and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion were determined. The GNB3 825T allele was not associated with casual or amb...
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
A two-state-model consisting of hexagonally connected lipids being either in the ordered or disordered state is used to set up a Monte Carlo Simulation for lipid monolayers. The connection of the lipids is realized by Newtonian springs emulating the surfaces elasticity and allowing for the calculation of translational movement of the lipids, whereas all necessary simulation parameters follow from experiments. Simulated monolayer isotherms can be directly compared to measured ones concurrently allowing the calculation of the experimentally hardly accessible monolayer heat capacity.
Gemini IV measurements of radiation environment in inner Van Allen belt and South Atlantic anomaly region - ionizing and penetrating power of primary and secondary radiations
The ionization and penetration power of various primary and secondary radiations that were present within the Gemini spacecraft was studied. This was accomplished by measurement of the contributions to dose according to profile, particle type, time, and position (location) within the spacecraft. Both active- and passive-dosimetry data collected in this experiment showed that no radiation hazard was associated with manned space operations within the Gemini spacecraft at altitudes as great as 310 kilometers in the South Atlantic anomaly region. This conclusion is warranted also by theoretical calculations.
Advanced dosimetry system concepts are described that will provide automated and instantaneous measurement of dose and particle spectra. Systems are proposed for measuring dose rate from cosmic radiation background to greater than 3600 rads/hr. Charged particle spectrometers, both internal and external to the spacecraft, are described for determining mixed field energy spectra and particle fluxes for both real time onboard and ground-based computer evaluation of the radiation hazard. Automated passive dosimetry systems consisting of thermoluminescent dosimeters and activation techniques are proposed for recording the dose levels for twelve or more crew members. This system will allow automatic onboard readout and data storage of the accumulated dose and can be transmitted to ground after readout or data records recovered with each crew...
Active and passive dosimetry instrumentation to measure absorbed dose, charged particle spectra, and linear energy transfer spectra inside the command module and orbital workshop on the Skylab program were developed and tested. The active dosimetry system consists of one integral unit employing both a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and silicon solid state detectors. The instrument measures dose rates from 0.2 millirad/hour to 25 rads/hour, linear energy transfer spectra from 2.8 to 42.4 Kev/micron, and the proton and alpha particle energy spectra from 0.5 to 75 Mev. The active dosimeter is equipped with a portable radiation sensor for use in astronaut on-body and spacecraft shielding surveys during passage of the Skylab through significant space radiations. Data are transmitted in real time or are recorded by onboard spacecraft t...
AMPA receptor subunit-specific antibodies were used to determine if the distribution of excitatory amino acid receptors in the owl’s auditory brainstem and midbrain nuclei reflected specializations for temporal processing. Each auditory nucleus displays characteristic levels of immunostaining for the AMPA receptor subunits GluR1-4, with high levels of the subtypes which exhibit rapid desensitization (GluR4 and 2/3). In the auditory brainstem, levels of GluR2/3 and GluR4 were very high in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis and the nucleus laminaris. The different cell types of the cochlear nucleus angularis and the superior olive were characterized by heterogeneous GluR2/3 and 4 immunostaining. GluR1 levels were very low or undetectable. In the lemniscal nuclei, most neurons contained low levels of GluR1, and dense GluR2/3 and GluR4 i...
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