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animals and people consuming seafood. Brevetoxin-B2 (5) is a toxic metabolite produced in shellfish exposed to algae that contain brevetoxin-B (1). S-Desoxybrevetoxin-B2 (4) has been proposed as a cometabolite produced during this transformation, and while LC-MS analyses suggest its presence in shellfish, it has not yet been isolated and characterized. Studies on these materials are severely constrained by the difficulty of obtaining and purifying them from natural sources. We have developed a convenient one-pot conversion of commercially available brevetoxin-B (1) into S-desoxybrevetoxin-B2 (4), and a simple method for converting 4 into brevetoxin-B2 (5). Full NMR and mass-spectral characterization of 4 and 5 confirmed their structures and showed that the ratio of diastereoisomers in the synthetic 4 and 5 was similar to that observed ...
Yessotoxins from a large-scale culture (226 L) of Protoceratium reticulatum strain CAWD129 were harvested by filtration followed by solid-phase extraction. The extract was purified by column chromatography over basic alumina and reverse-phase flash chromatography to afford pure yessotoxin (193 mg). Isolation of yessotoxin was greatly facilitated by selection of a strain which did not produce analogues that interfered with yessotoxin isolation. In addition to yessotoxin, numerous minor yessotoxins were detected by LC-MS in other fractions. From one of these, an early eluting minor analogue with the same molecular weight as yessotoxin and a similar mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern was isolated. This analogue was identified by NMR and mass spectrometry as a novel yessotoxin analogue containing a furan ring in the side chain. This ...
Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Recent studies indicate that DTX-2 is about half as toxic and has about half the affinity for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as OA. NMR structural studies showed that DTX-1 possessed an equatorial 35-methyl group but that DTX-2 had an axial 35-methyl group. Molecular modeling studies indicated that an axial 35-methyl could exhibit unfavorable interactions in the PP2A binding site, and this has been proposed as the reason for the reduced toxicity of DTX-2. Statistical analyses of published data indicate that the affinity of PP2A for DTX-1 is 1.6-fold higher, and for DTX-2 is 2-fold lower, than for OA. We obtained X-ray crystal structures of DTX-1 and DTX-2 bound to PP2A. T...
Two novel pectenotoxins (PTXs), PTX-13 and -14, were isolated from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compounds were identified as oxidized analogues of PTX-2 by NMR spectroscopic and LC-MS studies. PTX-13 (32R-hydroxyPTX-2) corresponds to the unidentified analogue PTX-11x reported by [Suzuki et al., 2003. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of spiroketal stereoisomers of pectenotoxins and the analysis of novel pectenotoxin isomers in the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta from New Zealand. J. Chromatogr. A 992, 141–150]. PTX-13 underwent slow deuteration at the 13β-position during NMR analysis. PTX-14 corresponds to the 32,36-dehydration product of PTX-13, and may be an artifact.
A cis-isomer of a C8-diol ester of okadaic acid (1) was isolated during large-scale purification of pectenotoxins (PTXs) from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compound was identified by NMR spectroscopic and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies, and is the first reported cis-isomer of an okadaic acid C₈-diol-ester identified in Dinophysis. The more abundant trans-C₈-diol ester of okadaic acid (2) isolated from the same Dinophysis extract was rapidly hydrolyzed to okadaic acid in vitro by the supernatant from green-lipped mussel hepatopancreas.
Microcystins are cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, which can be harmful to humans and animals when ingested. Eight of the (more than) 90 microcystin variants presently characterized, contain the amino acid tryptophan. The well-researched oxidation products of tryptophan; kynurenine, oxindolylalanine, and N-formylkynurenine, have been previously identified in intact polypeptides but microcystin congeners containing oxidized tryptophan moieties have not been reported. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis of an extract of Microcystis CAWBG11 led to the tentative identification of two new tryptophan-containing microcystins (MC???WAba and MC-WL), as well as eight other microcystin analogs containing kynurenine, oxindolylalanine and N???formylkynurenine (Nfk). Investigation of one of these congeners (MC???NfkA) b...
Grazing of Echinopogon spp. by livestock in Australia has caused symptoms similar to those of perennial ryegrass staggers. We observed an endophytic fungus in the intercellular spaces of the leaves and seeds of New Zealand and Australian specimens of Echinopogon ovatus. Culture of surface-sterilized seeds from New Zealand specimens yielded a slow-growing fungus. An examination in which immunoblotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used indicated that E. ovatus plants from Australia and New Zealand were infected with fungi serologically related to Neotyphodium lolii (the endophyte of perennial ryegrass) and other Epichloe and Neotyphodium spp. endophytic in pooid grasses. No lolitrems (the indole–diterpenoids implicated as the causative agents of perennial ryegrass staggers), peramine analogs, or ergot alkaloids w...
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