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Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine that functions as an alarmin and is released from damaged tissue. The receptor for IL-33 is ST2, which exists as membrane bound and soluble forms. Levels of IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) are elevated in some inflammatory diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease that is due to loss of motor neurones, with some neuro-inflammation at the site of pathology. This study was performed to measure levels of IL-33 and sST2 in ALS. Serum was obtained from subjects with ALS (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 38). Levels of IL-33 and s ST2 were measured with ELISA. The level of Il-33 was significantly lower in ALS subjects than healthy controls, and the levels of sST2 were significantly higher. The lower levels of IL-33 could be due to degradation of IL-33 by caspases released from apoptot...
Wind tunnel investigation of external-flow jet-flap transport configuration having full-span tripple-slotted flaps - graphs
Patients with severe forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) require intensive care. Specific treatment, catheterization, and devices may increase morbidity in the intensive care unit (ICU). To understand the spectrum of morbidity associated with ICU care, the authors studied 114 patients with GBS. Major morbidity occurred in 60% of patients. Complications were uncommon if ICU stay was less than 3 weeks. Respiratory complications such as pneumonia and tracheobronchitis occurred in half of the patients and were linked to mechanical ventilation. Systemic infection occurred in one-fifth of patients and was more frequent with increasing duration of ICU admission. Direct complications of treatment and invasive procedures occurred infrequently. Life-threatening complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary embolism were very u...
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