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We consider the long standing problem in field theories of bosons that the boson vacuum does not consist of a `sea', unlike the fermion vacuum. We show with the help of supersymmetry considerations that the boson vacuum indeed does also consist of a sea in which the negative energy states are all "filled", analogous to the Dirac sea of the fermion vacuum, and that a hole produced by the annihilation of one negative energy boson is an anti-particle. This might be formally coped with by introducing the notion of a double harmonic oscillator, which is obtained by extending the condition imposed on the wave function. Next, we present an attempt to formulate the supersymmetric and relativistic quantum mechanics utilizing the equations of motion.
Comment: 34 pages, 11 figures; Section 5 is inserted, Section 4 and 6 are revised; Changed title, added references, revised acknowledgement and added an announcement of the successive paper
We propose a mechanism for the generation of temperature fluctuations of cosmic microwave background. We consider a large number of fields, such as Kaluza-Klein modes and string excitations. Each field contributes to the gravitational potential by a small amount, but an observable level of temperature fluctuations is achieved by summing up the contribution of typically of order 10^{14} fields. Tensor fluctuations are hardly affected by these fields. Our mechanism is based on purely quantum effects, and is different from the "slow-roll" or "curvaton" scenario. Using the observed data, we find constraints on the parameters of this model, such as the size of the extra dimensions and the string scale. Our model predicts a particular pattern of non-gaussianity with a small magnitude.
Comment: 32 pages, 7 figures; v2: Corrected minor misprints in Appendix. Added references; v3: Added discussion about reheating in Subsection 5.1. Added references. Final version to appear in PRD
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