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We report the low temperature resistivity [\rho(T)] measurement of the \gamma-phase crystalline alloys $Fe_xNi_{80-x}Cr_{20} (63 \geq x \geq 50)$ in the temperature range 0.4 K-20 K. We observe of resistivity minima occurring in the temperature range $T_{min}$ = 6-11 K. Below the minima $(T < T_{min}/2)$, the rise in $\rho$(T) follows a \sqrt{T} law indicating electron-electron interactions as the origin of this rise. In this alloy system by varying x one can go from a long range ordered antiferrogmagnetic to a ferromagnetic phase passing through spin glass and reenterant spin glass phases. We find that the \sqrt{T} temperature dependence of $\rho$(T) for $T < T_{min}$ is preserved irrespective of the type of magnetic order.
In this paper, we examine the urbanization history and policies of China and India with a special emphasis on the lower order cities. We consider the proposition that, as the developing countries continue to urbanize at a rapid pace, the lower order cities can play a potentially effective role in guiding future urbanization and in securing a balanced economic and spatial development. Through an examination of the urbanization records, policies, and performance of the lower order cities in these two countries we discuss the 'top-down' versus the 'bottom-up' approaches to urbanization strategy and national development. We conclude by discussing the nature of the differences between the urbanization policies of China and India and the transferability of the Chinese experience to other contexts.
Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, submitted to Brazilian Journal of Physics
Comment: 9 pages and 4 eps figures : modified manuscript
Comment: Text in Microsoft word and 4 figures(figs. and text in ps form)
Comment: 4 pages of text and figures in ps form
Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, Submitted to Phys. Rev. E
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