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The objective of this work is to investigate and compare, through an analytical study, the behaviour of perforated steel beams with different shape configurations and sizes of web openings. In this investigation the ‘Vierendeel’ failure mechanisms of steel beams with web openings are examined through a Finite Element study. The shear and flexural failures of standard perforated sections are controlled mainly by the size (i.e. depth) of the web openings, whilst the ‘Vierendeel’ mechanism is primarily controlled by the critical length of the web openings. Three main categories of web opening shape configurations and sizes are considered in this work. Standard, non-standard and elongated web opening configurations are examined, each with three different opening sizes. Four Advanced UB beams are used in the investigation in order to cover ...
The formation of space charge packets in XLPE (Cross-linked polyethylene) tapes from unaged cable insulation has been studied utilising the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) technique. The 150 m thick sheets were studied under constant applied dc field of 120 kV/mm at a temperature of 20 C for a period of 48 hours. After an inception period of about 3.5 hours, during which heterocharge accumulates at the anode and increases the local field there, a sequence of positive charge packets were observed to transit the sample starting from near the anode. Calculation of the internal field showed that the packets required a field of 140 kV/mm for their initiation. Reduction of the applied field step-wise from 120 kV/mm to 80 kV/mm indicated that the charge packet would keep moving as long as the local field at its front exceeded 100 kV/mm, but wit...
In this research, the influence of water absorption on the dielectric properties of epoxy resin and epoxy micro-composites and nano-composites filled with silica has been studied. Nanocomposites were found to absorb significantly more water than unfilled epoxy. However, the microcomposite absorbed less water than unfilled epoxy: corresponding to reduced proportion of the epoxy in this composite. The glass transition temperatures of all the samples were measured by both differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric spectroscopy. The Tg decreased as the water absorption increased and, in all cases, corresponded to a drop of approximately 20K as the humidity was increased from 0% to 100%. This implied that for all the samples, the amount of water in the resin component of the composites was almost identical. It was concluded that the e...
The life expressions of models of insulation ageing are functions of temperature and field as well as material parameters. A methodology is presented that allows these models to be applied to a cable geometry in which there is a radial variation of both field and temperature. In this way material parameters can be extracted from cable data. The methodology is illustrated using one such model and the parameters deduced from cable failure distributions are compared with those obtained for thin films. This comparison allows conclusions to be drawn about how the ageing process affects specimens of the same material with different volumes.
Three areas of considerable progress are identified in the area of polymeric insulation since the mid 1990s (i.e. since the inception of the Eric O. Forster Memorial Lectures): the understanding of ageing, the measurement of space charge, and the development of nanodielectrics. The paper proposes a typology to distinguish and define electrical ageing, degradation and breakdown. With reference to the principal theories of thermo-ageing, it is concluded that there is little direct evidence for ageing even though it is likely to exist, at least above a critical field. The capability to measure space charge has improved considerably and this shows considerable potential as a diagnostic tool. Space charge behaviour is extremely difficult to analyse and general predictions may be impossible in practice. It is, however, necessary to control s...
Electrical degradation processes in epoxy resins, such as electrical treeing, were found to be dependent on the temperature at which the experiments were carried out. Therefore, it is of considerable research interest to study the influence of temperature on the dielectric properties of the polymers and to relate the effect of temperature on these properties to the possible electrical degradation mechanisms. In this work, the dielectric properties of two different epoxy resin systems have been characterized via dielectric spectroscopy. The epoxy resins used were bisphenol-A epoxy resins Araldite CY1301 and Araldite CY1311, the later being a modified version of the former with added plasticizer. The CY1301 samples were tested below and above their glass transition temperature, while the CY1311 were tested well above it. Both epoxy syste...
Dielectric response measurement techniques in both time and frequency domains are studied in order to measure the dielectric loss of XLPE cables, which have very low losses. A high sensitivity transformer ratio bridge system, which can measure loss tangents as low as 10-5, has been developed with the ability to measure these cables. A tuned amplifier was designed to help to extend the frequency range from 200Hz to 20kHz. Different model cables from Borealis AB with different semiconducting materials have been measured in the temperature range 15⁰C to 120⁰C. It is found that the semiconducting layers dominate the dielectric loss in the insulation system of the XLPE cables, when the outer semicon is treated as measuring electrode. In this case, steadily increasing dielectric loss has been measured at higher frequencies. The resistivity o...
Electroluminescence excitation mechanisms have been investigated in epoxy resin under divergent and uniform field situations. Metallic wires embedded in the resin were used to produce field divergence whereas film samples were metallised to obtain a uniform field. Electroluminescence under divergent field was stimulated by an impulse voltage. Light was emitted on the positive and negative fronts of the square pulses when the field exceeded 20 kV/mm at the wire surface, with equal intensity and without polarity dependence. There was evidence of space charge accumulation around the wires in multiple-pulse experiments. Charge injection and extraction occurring at both fronts of the pulse provide the condition for EL excitation. Further excitation of the EL during the plateau of the voltage pulse is prevented by the opposite field of the t...
The dielectric properties of epoxy resin were studied as a function of hydration by dielectric spectroscopy. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements show different conduction and quasi-DC behaviors at very low frequencies (<10-2 Hz) with activation energies dependent on the hydration. These observations lead to the development of a model in which a “water shell” is formed around the nano-particles. The multiple shell model, originally proposed by Lewis and developed by Tanaka, has been further developed to explain low frequency dielectric spectroscopy results in which percolation of charge carriers through overlapping water shells was shown to occur. At 100% relative humidity, water is believed to surround the nanoparticles to a depth of approximately 10 monolayers as the first layer. A second layer of water is proposed that is disper...
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