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Background: Obesity and depressive symptoms are major public health problems, as, epidemiological studies suggest that depressive symptoms are linked to obesity. However, potential behavioral pathways linking depressive symptoms to obesity have not well examined.Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to assess behavioral factors as potential mediators between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Other objectives included: 1) examining the direct effects of depressive symptoms on BMI and WC and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: 2) and examining the moderating effects of perceived social support on the association of depressive symptoms and BMI.Methods: Data on U.S. adults with a mean age of 40 from the CARDIA study was used in multivariate regression analyses models to test the ...
Objective: Decreased hippocampal volume is one of the hypothesized pathological features of schizophrenia, but it is not known if this abnormality is familially transmitted. The aim of this study was to measure the hippocampal volume of the parents of schizophrenic probands. in relationship to the apparent transmission of genetic risk. Method: Eighteen subjects from families consisting of a schizophrenic proband and two clinically unaffected parents were studied. Probands were compared to six control subjects, matched for age, sex, and educational level. The six families were selected so that only one parent had an ancestral family history of schizophrenia. The volumes of both hippocampi were measured by magnetic resonance imaging and adjusted for age and whole brain volume. Research: The total hippocampal volumes of the parents wit...
Background: The second-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) enzyme immunoassay (EIA 2), an antibody-detection test, has high sensitivity and is one of the recommended screening tests for detecting HCV infection in the United States. However, its sensitivity among oncology patients is unknown. Objective: Assess the EIA 2 sensitivity among a group of oncology patients at a Nebraska clinic where an HCV outbreak occurred during 2000–2001 using nucleic acid testing (NAT) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) as the gold standards. Study design: Serum specimens were collected from patients 16 months after transmission had stopped. We tested the specimens using EIA 2 (Abbott HCV EIA 2.0), a NAT assay based on transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) (Gen-Probe TMA assay) and RIBA (Chiron RIBA® HCV 3.0 SIA). HCV infection was defined as ...
BACKGROUND: The West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in 2002 in the US saw over 3300 reported human cases of WNV disease, with over 2300 reported cases of WNV encephalitis and meningitis. The first documented cases of transfusion transmission of WNV through voluntary blood donation also occurred. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Case onset dates from the 2002 WNV epidemic in the US were used to estimate the risk of transfusion-associated transmission with statistical resampling. An easily computed approximating formula for the mean risk was derived. Estimates were computed for six high-incidence states and metropolitan areas. RESULTS: Mean and maximum risk of transfusion associated WNV transmission (per 10,000 donations) during the epidemic period for the selected states ranged from 2.12 to 4.76 and from 4.34 to 10.46, respectively; for the selecte...
Measurement of the availability of health care providers in a geographic area is a useful component in assessing access to health care. One of the problems associated with the county provider-to-population ratio as a measure of availability is that patients frequently travel outside their counties of residence for health care, especially those residing in non-metropolitan counties. Thus, in measuring the number of providers per capita, it is important that the geographic unit of analysis be a health service area. We have defined health care service areas for the coterminous United States, based on 1988 Medicare data on travel patterns between counties for routine hospital care. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to group counties into 802 service areas. More than one half of the service areas include only non-metropolitan counties. ...
The HLA-C locus is distinct relative to the other classicalHLA class I loci in that it has relatively limited polymorphism1, lower expression on the cell surface, and more extensive ligand–receptor interactions with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed -35) associates with control of HIV, and with levels of HLA-C messenger RNA transcripts and cell-surface expression, but the mechanism underlying its varied expression is unknown. We proposed that the -35 SNP is not the causal variant for differential HLA-C expression, but rather is marking another polymorphism that directly affects levels of HLA-C. Here we show that variation within the 39 untranslated region (UTR) of HLA-C regulates binding of the microRNA hsa-miR-148 to its target site, resulting i...
Quality research in home health care is complex since no gold standard exists for measuring adverse outcomes and the patient and clinician populations are heterogeneous. Furthermore, mortality, the outcome often used for quality research in institutionalized settings is not appropriate for home health care as unexpected death is too rare. This study evaluated three indices of functional decline. The first index is defined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as substantial decline in three or more activities of daily living (ADLs). Substantial is considered a minimum two-unit decline and the ADLs evaluated were grooming, toileting, bathing, ambulation, and transferring. Alternative indices were developed with frequencies of 783 (1.58%) for substantial declines in two or more ADLs (Index Two) and 4 271 (8.64%) fo...
Most recent demographic studies suggest that women are postponing marriage to their twenties. However, data from the 1978 Cameroon Fertility Survey and 1991 Demographic and Health survey suggest that an average rural woman in Cameroon experiences marriage and motherhood very early in life even by Sub-Saharan African standards. By the time a cohort of women is celebrating its 20th anniversary; very few are single. While marriage is closely tied with motherhood experience, an appreciable number of rural women do start sexual relationships and have their first births even before contracting a socially recognized marital union. Marriage does not seem to be the prerequisite for childbearing as 21% of the never married women (mostly teenagers) were already into motherhood.
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