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Computational ergonomic analyses are often laboriously tested one task at a time. As digital human models improve, we can partially automate the entire analysis process of checking human factors requirements or regulations against a given design. We are extending our Parameterized Action Representation (PAR) to store requirements and its execution system to drive human models through required tasks. Databases of actions, objects, regulations, and digital humans are instantiated into PARs and executed by analyzers that simulate the actions on digital humans and monitor the actions to report successes and failures. These extensions will allow quantitative but localized design assessment relative to specific human factors requirements.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Jan.Tack@med.kuleuven.ac.be
Universitair Ziekenhuis St. Rafaël, Laboratorium voor Histo-& Cytochemie, Leuven, Belgium.
A simple and selective ion-pair HPLC method has been developed for the analysis of clarithromycin in aqueous solutions and in gastric juice. A Hypersil ODS 5-mu m (150 x 4.6 mm I.D.) column was used with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-aqueous 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 4.6) containing 5 mM 1-octanesulphonic acid (50:50, v/v). The column temperature was 50 degrees C and detection was by UV absorption (210 nm). The limits of detection of 50-mu l samples were 0.4 mu g/ml (aqueous) and 0.78 mu g/ml (0.5 ml gastric juice) or better. The assay was linear in the range of 1.56 to 100 pg/ml with r(2) values greater than 0.99. The recovery from the gastric juice samples was 98.5 +/- 2.9%. The method was applied successfully to determine the stability of clarithromycin in 0.01 M HCl and gastric juice.
[eng] As an expression of the erga omnes nature of the legal obligations regarding the protection of human rights, many human rights treaties that establish bodies of experts allow the States Parties to make a complaint before those bodies against other Parties that don’t comply with the conventional obligations therein. Such interstate complaints are a hybrid mechanism aiming at supervising the application of the treaty, to solve controversies among States Parties and/or to prevent those controversies. In practice, however, interstate complaints are very rarely filed, mainly due to their high political component that makes them be considered an unfriendly act. Despite such infrequent use, it is somehow surprising that most of the complaints filed up to date have regarded exceptional situations that qualify as “crisis”, what seems to h...
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