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The small GTPase Rap1 is highly expressed in human neutrophils, but its function is largely unknown. Using the Rap1- binding domain of RalGDS (RalGDS-RBD) as an activationspecific probe for Rap1, we have investigated the regulation of Rap1 activity in primary human neutrophils. We found that a variety of stimuli involved in neutrophil activation, including fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP), platelet-activating factor (PAF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IgG-coated particles, induce a rapid and transient Rap1 activation. In addition, we found that Rap1 is normally activated in neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients that lack cytochrome b558 or p47phox and have a defective NADPH oxidase system. From these results we conclude that in neutrophils Rap1 is activated independently of respiratory burst induc...
High-affinity receptors for interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5, and granu-locyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are composed of two distinct subunits, a ligand-specific a chain and a common ß chain (ßc). Whereas the mouse has two homologous ß subunits (ßc and bIL-3), in humans, only a single ß chain is identified. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the human IL-3/IL-5/ GM-CSF receptor ß subunit. The gene spans about 25 kb and is divided into 14 exons, a structure very similar to that of the murine ßc/ßIL-3 genes. Surprisingly, we also found the remnants of a second ßc chain gene directly downstream of ßc. We identified a functional promoter that is active in the myeloid cell lines U937 and HL-60, but not in HeLa cells. The proximal promoter region, located from -103 to +33 bp, contains two ...
Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) found in the granules of human eosinophils is a cationic ribonuclease toxin. Expression of the EDN gene (RNS2) in eosinophils is dependent on proximal promoter sequences in combination with an enhancer located in the first intron. We further define here the active region of the intron using transfections in differentiated eosinophilic HL60 cells. We show that a region containing a tandem PU.I binding site is important for intronic enhancer activity. This region binds multiple forms of transcription factor PU.I as judged by gel-shift analysis and DNA affinity precipitation. Importantly, introducing point mutations in the PU.I site drastically reduces the intronic enhancer activity, showing the importance of PU.I for expression of EDN in cells of the eosinophilic lineage.
The receptor for interleukin-5 (IL-5R) is composed of a unique a chain (IL-5Ra) expressed on eosinophils and basophils, associated with a bc subunit, which is shared by the receptors for IL-3 and granulocyte macrophagecolony stimulating factor. One of the molecular events activated via the IL-5R is the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Recent reports have shown that IL-5 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 followed by the subsequent cell type-specific activation of either STAT1a or STAT5. To identify additional STAT proteins activated by IL-5, we co-transfected the IL-5R with STAT cDNAs in COS cells. We found that IL-5 induces binding of STAT3 to the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 pIRE, and activates STAT3-dependent transcription. Moreover, endogenous STAT3 was tyrosine phosphorylated and activated in human IL-5-stimulated BaF3 cells...
Detachment of the rear of the cell from its substratum is an important aspect of locomotion. The signaling routes involved in this adhesive release are largely unknown. One of the few candidate proteins to play a role is RhoA, because activation of RhoA in many cell types leads to contraction, a mechanism probably involved in detachment. To study the role of RhoA in detachment regulation, we analyzed several subsets of expert migratory leukocytes by video microscopy. In contrast to fast-migrating neutrophils, eosinophils do not detach the rear of the cell unless stimulated with serum. When measuring the amount of active RhoA, with the use of a GSTRhotekin pulldown assay, we found that serum is an excellent activator of RhoA in granulocytes. Inhibition of RhoA or one of Rho’s target proteins, the kinase ROCK, in neutrophils leads to the...
The multistep model of leukocyte adhesion reveals that selectins mediate rolling interactions and that integrins mediate firm adhesion processes. In this study, the interaction between eosinophils and TNF-a-activated HUVEC (second or third passage) was studied under flow conditions (0.8 and 3.2 dynes/cm 2 ). Especially the role of a4 integrins on eosinophils and E-selectin on HUVEC was studied. Inhibition of the integrin a4 chain on eosinophils reduced the number of firmly adhered resting eosinophils to TNF-a-stimulated endothelium by 43% whereas the percentage rolling cells increased 2.2-fold compared with untreated control eosinophils. Blocking of E-selectin on the endothelium reduced the number of adherent eosinophils by only 23% and 16%. In this situation, however, hardly any rolling adhesion was observed, and the few rolling cells...
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