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Iohexol plasma clearance as a measure of glomerular filtration was determined in 31 dogs and 19 cats after an intravenous (IV) bolus injection. All animals were healthy and privately owned. Serial blood samples were taken before and up to 4 h after tracer injection. Iohexol plasma concentration was determined using X-ray fluorescence. A plasma tracer elimination curve was generated and clearance was calculated by dividing the injected dose by the area under the curve estimated using a two-compartment pharmacological model. Clearance was normalized to body weight (BW), body surface area (BSA), and extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). Mean, SD, and coefficient of variation of plasma clearance, before and after normalization, were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed between body size and normalized plasma clearances. No si...
Between December 25th 1983 and January 7th 1984 59 cases of dysentery bacteriologically proven to be caused by Shigella flexneri 2 occurred in the Netherlands. For a further 34 cases of gastroenteritis, strong epidemiological evidence was present to allow the diagnosis of shigellosis. In approximately 80 additional cases of gastroenteritis the disease was probably also caused by Shigella (Bijkerk, H., personal communication, 18th January 1984). The epidemic caused death in 14 patients, all aged over 70. The earliest sign of the epidemic came from a home for elderly people. 28 of the 208 residents and 2 of the 22 staff fell ill with fever and gastroenteritis. The shrimp cocktail served at the Christmas dinner was suspected to be the source of infection. The history of other patients substantiated the aetiological role of the shrimps. T...
Lack of self-control or impulsive decision making may be an important symptom of psychiatric disorders, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder [2,7]. Animal models are crucial in studying the underlying neurobiology. In the intolerance-to-delay (ID) task [3,5], subjects may choose between a late-large and a soon-small reward. Impulsive subjects are intolerant to the forced waiting for the large reward [4,5]. The rats’ performance on the ID-task is investigated by placing the animals in individual operant chambers for a short period daily [4,5]. However, stress caused by handling and by novelty might influence their performance. Therefore, a new computer-controlled operant panel was developed, which can be placed inside the home cage, enabling the rat to operate it 24 hours/day. Here we report results of a pilot experiment usi...
Deficient T cell regulation can be mechanistically associated with development of chronic autoimmune diseases. Therefore, combining the regulatory properties of IL-10 and the specificity of autoreactive CD4+ T cells through adoptive cellular gene transfer of IL-10 via autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells seems an attractive approach to correct such deficient T cell regulation that avoids the risks of nonspecific immunosuppressive drugs. In this study, we studied how cartilage proteoglycan-specific CD4+ T cells transduced with an active IL-10 gene (TIL-10) may contribute to the amelioration of chronic and progressive proteoglycan-induced arthritis in BALB/c mice. TCR-transgenic proteoglycan-specific TIL-10 cells ameliorated arthritis, whereas TIL-10 cells with specificity for OVA had no effect, showing the impact of Ag-specific targeting o...
In een natuurlijke omgeving vertonen zeugen rondom het werpen een uitgebreid repertoire van moedergedrag. De huisvesting van zeugen in kraamhokken heeft veel van dit gedrag onmogelijk gemaakt. Dit roept de vraag op in hoeverre het kunnen vertonen van dit gedrag voor het varken van belang is.
A two-phase cross-over therapeutic study was performed with 19 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) maintained within a preferred optimum temperature range of 26 to 37°C. During phase 1, they were fed a normal vegetarian diet and medicated orally with either allopurinol or a placebo control once a day for seven days. Uric acid concentrations, total protein, packed-cell volumes (PCV) and bodyweights were recorded from each lizard before and after treatment to determine the effects of allopurinol. In phase 2, after a 10-day washout period, the iguanas were fed a high protein diet to induce hyperuricaemia. Normoand hyperuricaemic iguanas that received 24·2 (3·2) mg/kg allopurinol had significantly lower mean (sd) uric acid concentrations (100·3 [53·1] μmol/l) than the controls (159·3 [100·3] μmol/l). There were no detectable interactions between...
Neisseria meningitidis LpxL1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bearing penta-acylated lipid A is considered a promising adjuvant candidate for inclusion in future N. meningitidis vaccines, as it elicits a markedly reduced endotoxic response in human macrophages relative to that in wild-type (hexa-acylated) LPS, while it is an equally effective adjuvant in mice. As dendritic cells (DC) and Toll-like receptors (TLR) are regarded as central mediators in the initiation of an immune response, here we evaluated the ability of LpxL1 LPS to mature and to activate human DC and examined its TLR4-/MD-2-activating properties. Unexpectedly, purified LpxL1 LPS displayed minimal human DC-stimulating properties compared to wild-type LPS. Although whole bacteria induced DC maturation and activation irrespective of their type of LPS, the LpxL1 mutant failed to a...
The E2F family is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals, with some family members having transcription activation functions and others having repressor functions. Whereas C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have a single E2F activator protein and repressor protein, mammals have at least three activator and five repressor proteins. Why such genetic complexity evolved in mammals is not known. To begin to evaluate this genetic complexity, we targeted the inactivation of the entire subset of activators, E2f1, E2f2, E2f3a and E2f3b, singly or in combination in mice. We demonstrate that E2f3a is sufficient to support mouse embryonic and postnatal development. Remarkably, expression of E2f3b or E2f1 from the E2f3a locus (E2f3a3bki or E2f3a1ki, respectively) suppressed all the postnatal phenotypes associated with the inactivation...
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