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We show that the fraction of proliferating CD4+ lymphocytes is similar in HIV-infected subjects in the early stage of disease and in HIV-negative subjects, whereas the fraction of proliferating CD8+ lymphocytes is increased 6.8-fold in HIV-infected subjects. After initiation of antiviral therapy, there is a late increase in proliferating CD4+ T cells associated with the restoration of CD4+ T-cell counts. These results provide strong support for the idea of limited CD4+ T-cell renewal in the early stage of HIV infection and indicate that after effective suppression of virus replication, the mechanisms of CD4+ T-cell production are still functional in early HIV infection.
We analyze a model for the reversible cross-linking of cell surface receptors by a collection of bivalent ligands with different affinities for the receptor as would be found in a polyclonal anti-receptor serum. We assume that the amount of cross-linking determines, via a monotonic function, the rate at which cells become activated and divide. In addition to the density of receptors on the cell surface, two quantities, the binding field and the cross-linking field, are needed to characterize the cross-linking curve, i.e., the equilibrium concentration of cross-linked receptors plotted as a function of the total ligand site concentration. The binding field is the sum of all ligand site concentrations weighted by their respective binding affinities, and the cross-linking field is the sum of all ligand site concentrations weighted by the ...
T cell vaccination (TCV) is a method to induce resistance to autoimmune diseases by priming the immune system with autoreactive T cells. This priming evokes an anti-idiotypic regulatory T cell response to the receptors on the autoreactive T cells. Hence resistance is induced. To prevent the inoculated autoreactive cells from inducing autoimmunity, cells are given in a subpathogenic dose or in an attenuated form. We developed a mathematical model to study how the interactions between autoreactive T cells, self epitopes, and regulatory cells can explain TCV. The model is based on detailed data on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but can be generalized to other autoimmune diseases. We show that all of the phenomena collectively described as TCV occur quite naturally in systems where autoreactive T cells can be controlled by anti...
The spectrum of low molecular weight compounds, in particular of ribonucleotides, within first cleavage stage embryos of the polar lobe-forming mollusc Nassarius reticulatus and the distribution of the compounds within the embryo at the trefoil stage of first cleavage are analysed by means of capillary isotachophoresis after 0.5 M PCA extraction. The compounds which are found in the whole trefoil embryo (T), the lobeless part (LL), and the polar lobe (PL) respectively, and the mean quantities (nmol. μl−1; n=6) are: UTP (11.5, 4.8, 5.6), ITP (8.5, 3.6, 5.0), GTP (10.3, 3.0, 9.0), ATP (29.8, 13.4, 18.8), UDP (11.8, 3.4, 8.7), CTP (8.0, 3.1, 4.5), GDP (5.3, 2.6, 3.4), ADP(16.5, 6.1, 11.6), CDP(4.0, 1.4, 2.6), GMP (4.7, 2.7,4.3), glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) (53.5, 38.8, 13.0). These compounds appear to be localized in the non-yolk cytoplasmi...
Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans is typically characterised by persistent high virus load, failure of the immune response to clear the virus, and fatal disease outcome. Natural hosts of closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs)—e.g., sooty mangabeys [1,2]—maintain comparably high persistent virus levels and yet remain healthy.
Selected strains of rhizosphere bacteria reduce disease by activating a resistance mechanism in the plant named rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR). Rhizobacteria-mediated ISR resembles pathogeninduced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in that both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant towards a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Some rhizobacteria trigger the salicylic acid (SA)- dependent SAR pathway by producing SA at the root surface. In other cases, rhizobacteria trigger a different signalling pathway that does not require SA. The existence of a SA-independent ISR pathway has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast to pathogen-induced SAR, ISR induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r is independent of SA accumulation and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene activa...
The application of permeabilized cells and membrane fractions, which possess DNA-synthesizing capacity, has stimulated considerably the study of the mechanism of DNA replication in procaryotic systems. A similar approach for the replication of DNA in higher organisms has hardly been investigated.
Oxaloacetate which is formed by isolated rat-liver mitochondria during oxidation of malate may be decarboxylated to pyruvate by the action of oxaloacetate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.3). The pyruvate so formed is rapidly oxidized to acetyl-CoA from which citrate is formed by condensation with a second molecule of oxaloacetate. The rate of this pathway has been measured in various energy states in the presence of fluorocitrate to block the oxidation of citrate. The rate of conversion of malate to acetyl-CoA was calculated either from a comparison of the disappearance of malate and the formation of the various products or from 14CO2 production from -[U-14C]-malate. When fatty acids or pyruvate are oxidized together with malate, the conversion of malate to acetyl-CoA is decreased, especially in a high-energy state (State 4). In a low-energy ...
Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5–48.1°N and 6–14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Al...
We reconstruct the vegetational history of the southern side of the Alps at 18,000–10,000 cal yr BP using previous and new AMS-dated stratigraphic records of pollen, stomata, and macrofossils. To address potential effects of climatic change on vegetation, we compare our results with independent paleoclimatic series (e.g. isotope and chironomid records from the Alps and the Alpine forelands). The period before 16,000 cal yr BP is documented only at the lowland sites. The previous studies used for comparison with our new Palughetto record, however, shows that Alpine deglaciation must have started before 18,000–17,500 cal yr BP south of the Alps and that deglaciated sites were colonized by open woods and shrublands (Juniperus, tree Betula, Larix, Pinus cembra) at ca 17,500 cal yr BP. The vegetational history of a new site (Palughetto, 104...
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