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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important problem of public health worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality, and with huge health economic burdens. There is a paucity of prognostic beneficial therapies. The development of novel pharmaceutical therapies in COPD is hampered by the absence of lung-specific biomarkers, which could serve as predictors of prognosis of COPD or as surrogate endpoints. Surfactant proteins (SP) would possibly serve as such a biomarker. The levels of these proteins fluctuate in the serum and in the lung of patients with COPD, dependent of the disease stage. This review will provide an overview of the functional characteristics of three surfactant-associated proteins, SP-A, SP-B and SP-D, their possible roles as prognostic predictors of COPD, and their relationship with tobacco smoking. So ...
The aim of this thesis project is to design and fabricate a high efficiency on chip cooling device based on the Peltier effect. Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) are employed to form thermocouple for their high Seebeck coefficient and high figure of merit. The models of the devices are simulated in the software program COMSOL, and based on simulation results, a set of masks are designed. The patterning methods are investigated, and wet etching is chosen for its simplicity and smooth edge, although the lateral undercut is 4-5 times of the layer thickness. The wet etchant is HCl: HNO3: H2O =3:1:2 for Bi2Te3, and HNO3: H2O =1:1 for Sb2Te3. The devices are tested on the probe station and under the thermal camera. The combined Seebeck coefficient is 282μV/K. A maximum cooling temperature of 3.3K is observed.
The project is aimed at using landscape proposals to inspire public participation changing their own living environment in shrinking cities. The strategy shows a landscape urbanism process, works at different scales and provides different possibilities towards a prospective future.
fertility ; evaluation ; economic models ; econometrics ; education
economic analysis ; marriage ; static analysis ; efficiency ; fertility
Cyclic peptides are an important class of compounds with broad biological activities. Both natural as well as synthetic cyclic peptides have been recognized as a great resource and inspiration for drug discovery. Macrocyclization is recognized as an efficient way to restrict the conformational freedom of a peptide which often leads to increased affinity and selectivity. However, only a limited number of approaches for efficient peptide macrocyclization are presently available. Vancomycin is the most representative member of a family of glycopeptide antibiotics, which are the most important class of drugs for the treatment of resistant bacterial infections. The ongoing development of novel synthetic methodology to access conformationally restricted cyclic peptides encouraged us to develop effective approaches to mimic the bioactive con...
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