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The semantics of modelling languages are not always specified in a precise and formal way, and their rather complex underlying models make it a non-trivial exercise to reuse them in newly developed tools. We report on experiments with a virtual machine-based approach for state space generation. The virtual machine's (VM) byte-code language is straightforwardly implementable, facilitates reuse and makes it an adequate target for translation of higher-level languages like the SPIN model checker's PROMELA, or even C. As added value, it provides efficiently executable operational semantics for modelling languages. Several tools have been built on top of the VM implementation we developed, to evaluate the benefits of the proposed approach.
Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and rising cost levels for high tech breeding methods entire programmes are nowadays urged to look for new sustainable co- or self-financing business models in order to continue their work. The paper explains through financial calculations how risk can be split by all partners and how the supply chain can be developed further into a value chain by using a collective royalty system on trees and fruit, to add value to all market participants and to support...
Interest in accessing, developing and transporting offshore resources in the polar environments comprise elements of energy and environmental security. These contemporary issues place stress on the systems of polar governance, expressed in this thesis as operating systems. The capacity of each polar operating system to deal with emerging issues is determined by operating system robustness. This thesis argues that robustness of polar governance is not solely dependent on the structure of the operating system. Robustness is attained, and maintained, through the dynamic interaction between the actors and the systems’ components. Robustness is defined through the combination of participant confidence and the ability to effectively avoid prejudice to states’ rights. Participant confidence further relies on state authority, legiti...
Comment: 53 pages
The concept of solidarity has been used in IR theory with social theoretic connotations, which have remained, by and large, murky and unclear. Below, I argue that the concept of solidarity must be understood together with its normative implications, that these implications matter per se, and that this has yet to be realised in contexts where the concept is used in IR.
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