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TheU.S.S. MAINE RELIC consists of a porthole cover and section of the base mast from the ill-fated battleship Maine, mounted on a large rock in the triangle at the south end of Washington Blvd. in WASHINGTON PARK in NEWBURGH HTS. Though the cause of the explosion that sank the ship in Cuba's Havana Harbor on 15 Feb. 1898 is still uncertain, an inscription on the porthole cover attributes it to a Spanish submarine. Whatever the truth, the event played a pivotal role in the outbreak of the SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR two months later. The 6,700-lb. relic was presented to the city by the U.S. government on 29 Apr. 1912 and given its present installation in 1948.
UKRAINIANS. The first large groups of Ukrainians arrived in America in the 1870s from the Lemko, Carpatho-Ruthenia, and Galitsian (Halycchyna) regions. Their numbers are difficult to determine, because they were counted as Austrians, HUNGARIANS, POLES, or RUSSIANS, the groups that at one time or another occupied Ukraine. Most were known as Ruthenians after the name of their former state, Rus-Ukraine. They mainly emigrated for economic reasons, planning to work, get wealthy, return home, and buy land. World War I, however, caused them to settle as permanent residents. The first Ukrainians arrived in the Cleveland area in the mid-1880s, settling mainly on the west side in the TREMONT area. Subsequent waves of immigrants arrived between World War I and World War II and consisted of former fighters for Ukrainian independence. They, like th...
VIETNAMESE. The Cleveland Vietnamese community is primarily made up of individuals and families who formerly were citizens of the Republic of South Vietnam. Some fled their native land to escape the violence which ravaged their war-torn homeland. Others left after the war had come to an end, to escape oppression at the hands of the victorious Communist regime which ultimately had gained control over their homeland. The first Vietnamese to settle in Cleveland arrived in May 1975. In 1954, following an 8-year war to expel the French from their colonial domination of Vietnam, the country found itself divided by the peace agreement. The north, home to the Communist forces which had battled the French, became a Communist state, while in the south the Nationalist resistance movement instituted a republic. The "peace" settlement in actuality...
The BIG BROTHER/BIG SISTER MOVEMENT began in Cleveland in 1919 with the formation of the Jewish Big Brother and Jewish Big Sister associations, out of concern for the moral character of urban adolescents. Affiliated with the national Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America (founded 1903), these organizations provide "one-to-one friendships," matching adults with children from single-parent households. Big Brothers first organized in Cincinnati in 1903, Big Sisters in New York City in 1908. The local Jewish Big Brother program was established by the Welfare Committee of the Euclid Ave. Temple Alumni Assn. Formerly volunteer-run, the program joined the Jewish Social Services Bureau (JSSB) in 1925, involving professional caseworkers. BERTHA BEITMAN (Mrs. Siegmund) HERZOG, president of the local section of the NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN,...
URBAN TRANSPORTATION. During the last 150 years, transit in Greater Cleveland has gone from the horse and buggy to modern, diesel-powered buses and electric-rail coaches. Ownership has gone from small, privately owned, and minimally regulated systems (prior to 1910), to private corporations with tight public controls (1910-41), to city programs governed by a small board (1942-75); and to an autonomous regional authority (1975 to the present). Cleveland's urban transit programs have run the gamut of problems and opportunities faced by all metropolitan systems, whose histories often have been complex and stormy. The first urban transportation system established in the Cleveland area was the CLEVELAND & NEWBURGH RAILROAD, incorporated in 1834 by prominent Clevelanders. Operated by Silas Merchant, this line ran from a quarry atop Cedar Gl...
BUREAU OF JEWISH EDUCATION. See CENTER FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF JEWISH EDUCATION.
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